Flashcards in Module 4 drugs Deck (52)
(if not for the controlled status of this drug it would be our best decongestant, with the added benefit of great local anesthesia – it is still used in some ENT practices
4% topical cocaine (Decongestants)
phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine), oxymetazoline (Afrin Nasal Spray)
*phenylephrine is widely available but marginally helpful
topical decongestants (without ephedrine)
pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), but they are kept behind the counter for pharmacist supervision. Note: because it was so widely abused under the street name “herbal ecstasy”, ephedrine has been dropped from most products, occasionally you can find ephedrine still, but it is sold behind the counter with the pseudoephedrine.
non-OTC oral decongestants
diphenhydramine (Benadryl), brompheniramine, (Dimetane), chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), promethazine (Phenergan)
1st generation anithistamines
2nd gen antihistamine
fexofenadine (Allegra), cetirizine (Zyrtec).
3rd gen antihistamines
Leukotriene rc blocker
beclomethasone (Beconase), triamcinolone (Nasacort),
fluticasone (Flonase), mometasone (Nasonex) – as with all “real” corticosteroids, all of these are prescription drugs;
*the only OTC corticosteroid is the weak, weak 1% hydrocortisone found in some dermatologic preparations.
Corticosteroids --for intranasal admin
Afrin Nasal Spray
Cromolyn sodium (NasalCrom – also available in a solution that can be nebulized (made into a mist and inhaled) for the lungs (more about this in Chapter 15).
Mast Cell Stabilizers
A good side effect of many antihistamines is their tendency to have an antinausea effect. Only some of the 1st generation drugs are used for this purpose: diphenhydramine (Benadryl), Phenergan.
•dextromethorphan or “DMX” (Robitussin) is a synthetic non-addicting opioid-like drug, while morphine, codeine, and hydrocodone (Hycodan) are all schedule III narcotics
•guaifenesin is the most popular OTC expectorant
Antitussives & Expectorants
clotrimazole (Mycelex), nystatin (Mycostatin) given as a “swish and swallow” liquid for thrush infections of the mouth
Oral antibiotics include: penicillin VK, amoxicillin, clarithromycin (Biaxin), ciprofloxacin (Cipro).
Some antibiotics are too toxic for routine oral administration, so they are used mainly in topical preparations for outer ear infections: chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin Otic Drops), Neosporin (a topical combination of neomycin, bacitracin, and polymyxin B), Bactroban (mupirocin), Floxin (ofloxacin otic solution).
Cerumenex Ear Drops, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2);
local anesthetics (LAs) like benzocaine and lidocaine (Xylocaine – 4-10%);
salt water (Ocean Spray);
miscellaneous ENT drugs
Allegra-D, Claritin-D, NyQuil, Otobiotic Otic
Combination ENT drugs