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Toxicology > Molluscicide > Flashcards

Flashcards in Molluscicide Deck (32):
1

What is an example of a restricted pesticide used alone or in combination with other compounds as a molluscicide?

Metaldehyde

2

Outside of North America what is metaldehyde used as?

Fuel for camp stoves.

3

What is the most common form of exposure for metaldehyde?

Ingestion of baits

4

What are 4 forms metaldehyde can come in?

- Liquid
- Powder
- Meal
- Gel/paste

5

What percentage concentration of metaldehyde is allowed in the US?
In Europe?

- 2-5%
- 50%

6

What is a polymer of acetaldehyde that is a flammable irritant?

Metaldehyde

7

Is metaldehyde soluble in water?

Poorly soluble

8

Products can release metaldehyde for how long under moderately moist conditions?

10-14 days

9

What are 4 species of animals susceptible to metaldehyde toxicity?

- Dogs
- Cats
- Livestock
- Horses

10

Which are more sensitive to metaldehyde toxicity, cats or dogs?

Cats

11

Which animals is more likely to ingest metaldehyde, a dog or a cat?

Dog

12

Metaldehyde is more toxic through what route of exposure?
Which route is more common?

- Inhalation
- Ingestion

13

In what type of environment does metaldehyde undergo acid hydrolysis to acetaldehyde?

Gastric environment

14

Where is metaldehyde readily absorbed from in the body?

GI tract

15

Does Metaldehyde cross the BBB?
Acetaldehyde?

- Yes
- Yes

16

What is an example of a molluscicide?

Methaldehyde

17

Where is metaldehyde metabolized?

Liver

18

What might decrease the toxicity of metaldehyde?
What is an example of one?

- Enzyme inducer
- Phenobarbital

19

What is acetaldehyde metabolized by?
What is it converted to?
Then what happens?

- Hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase
- Converted to CO2
- Exhaled

20

Can metaldehyde undergo enterohepatic recirculation?

Yes

21

Metaldehyde decreases brain concentrations of what 3 neurotransmitters?

- GABA
- Norepinephrine
- Serotonin (5-HT)

22

If GABA is decreased, What are 2 examples of CNS signs that might occur?

- Seizures
- CNS excitation

23

How is metaldehyde responsible for the breakdown of 5-HT and norepinephrine, thus reducing their levels?

By increasing MAO

24

What are 2 GI/systemic signs that metaldehyde can cause?

- GI irritation
- Metabolic acidosis

25

What can CNS excitation lead to?

Hyperthermia

26

What is often the cause of death with metaldehyde toxicosis?

Respiratory failure

27

Dogs that survive acute metaldehyde toxicosis may develop what?
Has this been reported in cats?

- Liver failure
- No

28

The "shake and bake" seen with metaldehyde toxicosis refers to what 2 clinical signs?

- Acute neurotoxicosis
- Hyperthermia

29

Onset of clinical signs with metaldehyde toxicosis are usually seen when?

Within 3 hours

30

What are 3 GI signs that can be seen with metaldehyde toxicosis?

- Salivation
- Vomiting
- Diarrhea

31

Incoordination, muscle tremors, hyperesthesia, convulsive seizures and opisthotonos are CNS signs that can be seen with what type of toxicosis?

Metaldehyde toxicosis

32

Are convulsions seen with metaldehyde toxicosis elicitable by stimuli in cats?
In dogs?

- Yes
- Sometimes