Organic Synthetic Herbicides Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Synthetic Herbicides Deck (46):
1

What are 4 amides that are organic synthetic herbicides?

- Alachlor
- Bensulide
- Propachlor
- Propanil

2

What is a benzoic acid that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Chloramben

3

What is a carbamate that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Chloropropham

4

What is a dinitroanilines that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Benefin

5

What is a diphenyl ester that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Nitrofen

6

What are two dipyridyls that are organic synthetic herbicides?

- Paraquat
- Diquat

7

What is a nitrile that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Dichlobenil

8

What is an organoarsenical that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

MSMA (methyl arsonic acid)

9

What is a phenoxy acid that an organic synthetic herbicide?

2,4-D

10

What is a phthalamic acid that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Naptalam

11

What are 2 thiocarbamates that are organic synthetic herbicides?

- EPTC
- Triallate

12

What are 2 triazines that are organic synthetic herbicides?

- Atrazine
- Simazine

13

T/F: Generally, phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) sprayed on forages in the recommended concentration do not cause poisoning.

True

14

What are 2 ways phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) are ingested by cattle?

- Accidental ingestion of concentrates or sprays
- Grazing freshly sprayed pastures

15

What is a way that phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) are ingested by pets?

Access to freshly sprayed lawns

16

Which herbicide alters the metabolism of plants which increases their toxicity by increasing accumulation of nitrate or cyanide?

Phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D)

17

What is an herbicide that might improve palatability of some poisonous plants increasing poisoning?

Phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D)

18

Are phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) stable in the environment?

No

19

Are phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) degraded by rumen microflora?

No and they do not alter rumen microflora

20

What do phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) irritate?

GI mucosa

21

What are 2 things the toxicity of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) depend on?

- Species
- Duration of exposure

22

Which 2 species are the most susceptible to phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

- Cattle
- Dogs

23

Which species is more sensitive to phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

Dogs

24

What is the acute oral LD50 of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) in dogs?

100 mg/kg

25

What are 2 ways phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) can be absorbed?
What route is it poorly absorbed through?

- GIT and Inhalation
- Skin

26

What are 3 locations in the body phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) can be distributed to?

- Liver
- Kidney
- Brain

27

Are meat residues of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) in cattle and sheep likely to occur?

Unlikely unless exposed to very high concentrations.

28

What is the half-life length of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D)?

Generally short (few hours) but longer in dogs (up to 3-4 days)

29

How are phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) metabolized?
Excreted?

- Metabolized by hydrolysis
- Excreted mainly unchanged in urine by tubular secretion

30

What enhances renal excretion of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D)?

Alkalinization

31

Phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) affect what in dogs?

Skeletal muscle membranes

32

Which organic synthetic herbicide uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and depresses ribonuclease synthesis?

Phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D)

33

Clinical signs of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) include what?

Mainly GI and NM but generally non-specific

34

What are 5 possible GI clinical signs that can be seen in ruminants with phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

- Anorexia
- Rumen atony
- Bloat
- Diarrhea
- Ulcers in the buccal mucosa

35

What are 3 possible NM clinical signs that can be seen in ruminants with phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?
What is not clinical sign?

- Depression, muscle weakness, emaciation
- No convulsions

36

What are 3 possible GI clinical signs that can be seen in dogs with phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

- Anorexia
- Vomiting
- Bloody diarrhea

37

What are 2 possible NM clinical signs that can be seen in dogs with phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

- Myotonia and weakness of the muscles especially posterior muscles
- Ataxia with rigidity of skeletal muscles

38

At high doses, how fast is the onset of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

Rapid, less than 1 hour

39

Opisthotonos and posterior paralysis may be seen in addition to severe GI signs with which herbicide?

Phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D)

40

What are 4 clinical signs that can be seen in pigs with phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

- Vomiting
- Diarrhea
- Muscle weakness
- Depression

41

What are 2 types of lesions seen with phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

- GI damage
- Degeneration of the liver and kidney

42

What is a characteristic finding of ruminants with phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

Rumen stasis with ingested food.

43

Specimens of suspected forage, water, kidney, urine, liver, stomach contents and feces can be used in the lab diagnosis of which herbicide?

Phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D)

44

Levels of what 3 enzymes will be elevated in phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

- ALP: Alkaline phosphatase
- LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase
- CPK: Creatine phosphokinase

45

What are 3 elements to diagnosing phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

- History of ingestion
- Chemical analysis may be helpful
- Rule out other disease

46

Is there any specific antidote for phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

No