Organic Synthetic Herbicides Flashcards Preview

Toxicology > Organic Synthetic Herbicides > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organic Synthetic Herbicides Deck (46)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are 4 amides that are organic synthetic herbicides?

- Alachlor
- Bensulide
- Propachlor
- Propanil

2

What is a benzoic acid that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Chloramben

3

What is a carbamate that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Chloropropham

4

What is a dinitroanilines that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Benefin

5

What is a diphenyl ester that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Nitrofen

6

What are two dipyridyls that are organic synthetic herbicides?

- Paraquat
- Diquat

7

What is a nitrile that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Dichlobenil

8

What is an organoarsenical that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

MSMA (methyl arsonic acid)

9

What is a phenoxy acid that an organic synthetic herbicide?

2,4-D

10

What is a phthalamic acid that is an organic synthetic herbicide?

Naptalam

11

What are 2 thiocarbamates that are organic synthetic herbicides?

- EPTC
- Triallate

12

What are 2 triazines that are organic synthetic herbicides?

- Atrazine
- Simazine

13

T/F: Generally, phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) sprayed on forages in the recommended concentration do not cause poisoning.

True

14

What are 2 ways phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) are ingested by cattle?

- Accidental ingestion of concentrates or sprays
- Grazing freshly sprayed pastures

15

What is a way that phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) are ingested by pets?

Access to freshly sprayed lawns

16

Which herbicide alters the metabolism of plants which increases their toxicity by increasing accumulation of nitrate or cyanide?

Phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D)

17

What is an herbicide that might improve palatability of some poisonous plants increasing poisoning?

Phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D)

18

Are phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) stable in the environment?

No

19

Are phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) degraded by rumen microflora?

No and they do not alter rumen microflora

20

What do phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) irritate?

GI mucosa

21

What are 2 things the toxicity of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) depend on?

- Species
- Duration of exposure

22

Which 2 species are the most susceptible to phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

- Cattle
- Dogs

23

Which species is more sensitive to phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) toxicity?

Dogs

24

What is the acute oral LD50 of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) in dogs?

100 mg/kg

25

What are 2 ways phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) can be absorbed?
What route is it poorly absorbed through?

- GIT and Inhalation
- Skin

26

What are 3 locations in the body phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) can be distributed to?

- Liver
- Kidney
- Brain

27

Are meat residues of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) in cattle and sheep likely to occur?

Unlikely unless exposed to very high concentrations.

28

What is the half-life length of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D)?

Generally short (few hours) but longer in dogs (up to 3-4 days)

29

How are phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D) metabolized?
Excreted?

- Metabolized by hydrolysis
- Excreted mainly unchanged in urine by tubular secretion

30

What enhances renal excretion of phenoxy derivatives of fatty acids (2,4-D)?

Alkalinization