Flashcards in Copper Toxicosis Deck (44)
What are 2 forms of copper toxicosis?
Is acute copper toxicosis common?
What is the usual source of acute copper toxicosis?
Ingestion of high concentrations of copper
Rapid onset of severe GI signs including vomiting, colic, hemorrhagic diarrhea, dehydration and shock, due to the direct corrosive action of copper are clinical signs for what type of toxicosis?
Acute copper toxicosis
What is the treatment for acute copper toxicosis?
Supportive and symptomatic therapy
What are 3 potential sources for chronic copper toxicosis in sheep?
- Excess copper
- Molybdenum deficiency
- Unavailability of sulfate
What are 4 sources of excess copper?
- Feed additives
- Natural copper in soils and plants
- Soils contaminated by mining
- soils fertilized with poultry litter or swine manure
What is the normal copper/molybdenum ratio?
Normally, molybdate binds to copper tissues at what ratio?
What do they form?
How is this excreted?
- Copper molybdate
- Readily excreted in urine
Rumen sulfates and sulfites are reduced to what which binds to what, reducing its absorption?
Accumulation of copper in which organ is due to imbalances between copper, molybdenum and sulfate?
What are normal feed and forage levels of copper in sheep?
Normal feed and forage copper levels can cause copper accumulation in sheep with what 2 conditions?
- Molybdenum is deficient (less than 1-2 ppm)
- Sulfate is unavailable
How long does it take for sufficient levels of copper to accumulate in sheep for chronic copper toxicosis?
2-10 weeks of exposure
Liver damage can cause what?
What is this called?
- Copper accumulation by hepatocytes
- Secondary copper toxicosis
What may cause a sudden loss of copper from the liver to the blood?
Where is copper absorbed from?
How is it carried to different tissues?
- Carried by serum and RBCs
What removes most of copper from the blood?
What are 3 things copper is bound to?
- Hepatic lysosomes
How is copper mainly excreted?
What are 2 things copper accumulation in the liver causes?
- Liver degeneration
- Liver necrosis
What does release of copper from the liver and excess copper in blood cause?
What does this result in?
- Oxidation of RBC membranes increasing their fragility
- Hemolytic crisis
What does copper also oxidize?
What is the result of this?
- Hemoglobin to methemoglobin
- Can't carry oxygen
Sudden onset of weakness, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, icterus, hemoglobinuria, fever, dyspnea and shock are clinical signs of what type of toxicosis?
Chronic copper toxicosis in sheep
How does the liver appear with chronic copper toxicosis in sheep?
- Enlarged, yellow and friable
- Enlarged, hemorrhagic, bluish-dark and friable (gunmetal kidneys)
How does the spleen appear with chronic copper toxicosis in sheep?
Enlarged and dark brown to black (blackberry jam spleen)
What is considered to be an elevated serum or whole blood copper level?
> 1.5 ppm
What is considered to be an elevated liver copper level?
Kidney copper level?
- > 150 ppm
- > 15 ppm
What are 2 liver enzymes that will be elevated 3-6 weeks before a hemolytic crisis?
Sudden onset of hemoglobinuria, jaundice, signs of shock and respiratory insufficiency and lesions of hemolysis are part of the diagnosis of which toxicosis?
Chronic copper toxicosis in sheep
What are 4 differential diagnosis for chronic copper toxicosis in sheep?
- Hemolytic agents
- Poisonous plants
- Certain snake venom
- Infectious diseases
What are 5 examples of hemolytic agents that need to be differentiated from chronic copper toxicosis in sheep?
What are 4 examples of poisonous plants that need to be differentiated from chronic copper toxicosis in sheep?
- Gossypol (cottonseed)
- Red maple (Acer rubrum)
What are 4 examples of infectious diseases that need to be differentiated from chronic copper toxicosis in sheep?
- Bacillary hemoglobinuria
What are 2 things that can be given to sheep for the treatment of chronic copper toxicosis?
- Ammonium tetrathiomolybate
What can be sprayed on pastures at a rate of 4 oz/acre in an attempt to prevent chronic copper toxicosis in sheep?
Molybdenized copper phosphate
Sheep rations should contain what ratio of copper to molybdenum?
Molybdate can be added to sheep rations at what rate for prevention of chronic copper toxicosis in sheep?
What are 2 things that can be given to individual sheep daily to prevent chronic copper toxicosis?
- Ammonium molybdate
What can be given to reduce hepatic copper accumulation?
Supplemental zinc (250 ppm)
Chronic copper toxicosis in dogs is mainly seen in what breed?
At what age?
Due to what?
- Bedlington terrier
- 2-6 years
- Autosomal recessive disorder
What are 3 other breeds that can be susceptible to chronic copper toxicosis?
- West Highland White terriers
- Sky terriers
- Doberman pinscher
Excess free copper causes chronic active hepatitis and liver necrosis due to what?
Lipid peroxidation of mitochondrial membranes