Water Deprivation-Sodium Ion Toxicosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Water Deprivation-Sodium Ion Toxicosis Deck (35):
1

What are 3 potential sources of water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

- Feeding brine, whey or garbage
- Ingestion of salt licks or ice-melts
- Drinking water may contain salt

2

What are 4 factors that can cause excess sodium and water deprivation?

- Overcrowding
- Frozen water
- Unpalatable (medicated) water
- Lack of water

3

is the taste of salt attractive to most animals?

Yes

4

What effect does salt have on mucous membranes?

Mild irritant

5

What is the normal level of sodium chloride found in feed?

0.5-1%

6

What is the acute oral lethal dose of salt in horses, cattle and swine?
In sheep?
In dogs?

- 2.2 g/kg
- 6 g/kg
- 4 g/kg

7

Animals can tolerate more than what percentage of salt in their feed if they have free access to water?

More than 10%

8

Which 3 species are the most susceptible to water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

- Pigs
- Cattle
- Poultry

9

Which species is less susceptible to water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

Dogs

10

Salt is rapidly absorbed from where?
Distributed where?

- GI tract
- All over the body

11

How does sodium enter the brain?
How is it removed?

- Passive diffusion
- Active transport

12

What happens to the excess of absorbed sodium following large dietary intake as long as there is enough water?

Rapidly excreted in urine

13

What does excess sodium and water deprivation result in?

Hypertonicity of the blood and toxicosis

14

What are normal sodium levels in plasma?
In CSF?

- 135-145 mEq/L
- 130-140 mEq/L

15

Restricted water intake and dehydration increases plasma sodium levels to what?
CSF levels to what?

- 150-190 mEq/L
- 145-185 mEq/L

16

High sodium in the brain inhibits what?
What does this result in?

- Inhibits anaerobic glycolysis
- Results in lack energy necessary for active transport of sodium

17

What does sodium trapped in the brain attract?
What does this result in?

- Attracts water (osmotic gradient)
- Results in cerebral edema

18

What are 2 clinical signs seen early with water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

- Constipation
- Thirst

19

What are 3 other clinical signs that can be seen with water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

- Vomiting
- Polyuria
- Metabolic acidosis

20

What is a CNS sign that can be seen with water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

Intermittent convulsive seizures

21

Can the seizures seen with water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis be elicited by external stimuli?
How long do they last?

- No
- From 0.5 to 2-3 minutes

22

Circling, pivoting, head-pressing, blindness, deafness can all be seen with what toxicosis?

Water deprivation- sodium ion toxicosis

23

Which species shows only signs of depression, ascites and collapse with water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

Poultry

24

T/F: Gastric congestion or inflammation with pinpoint ulcers can be seen with water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis.

True

25

Fluid can be seen in what 2 places with water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

- Body cavities
- Organ edema

26

There can be prominent edema seen where with water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

Cerebral edema

27

What is histopathologically pathognomonic in pigs that die early from water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis

28

Serum and CSF levels of sodium above what concentration is considered diagnostic for water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

160 mEq/L or more

29

Brain sodium concentrations above what level support a diagnosis of water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

2000 ppm

30

What 4 things are used to diagnose water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

- History
- Encephalitic signs
- Lesions
- Lab diagnosis

31

What are 4 differential diagnoses for water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

- Encephalitic diseases (Trauma, tumor, heat stroke, viral encephalomyelitic conditions)
- Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides
- Roxarsone
- Pseudorabies

32

How should water be given in the treatment of water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?

Small amounts of fresh water gradually over 2-3 days

33

Giving water in large amounts with water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis can do what?

Kill animal by aggravating cerebral edema

34

What are 2 types of fluids that can be used for water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis treatment in small animals?

- IV fluids (5% dextrose)
- Furosemide

35

What is the prognosis for water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis?
Mortality rate?

- Poor
- About 50%