Rodenticide Flashcards Preview

Toxicology > Rodenticide > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rodenticide Deck (37):
1

Is strychnine a weak acid or a weak base?

Weak base

2

Which rodenticide is an alkaloid form strychnos nux vomica seeds?

Strychnine

3

Which rodenticide is a white powder with a bitter taste that is moderately water soluble?

Strychnine

4

How long can strychnine persist in the environment?

Up to 40 days

5

Which animals are susceptible to strychnine toxicity?

All animals are susceptible.

6

T/F: Cats are most frequently poisoned by strychnine and more sensitive than dogs.

False - Dogs most frequently poisoned by strychnine and more sensitive than cats.

7

What is a toxic dose of strychnine for dogs?

0.5-1.2 mg/kg

8

What is a toxic dose of strychnine for horses, cattle and pigs?

0.5 mg/kg

9

What is a toxic dose of strychnine for cats?

2 mg/kg

10

What is a toxic dose of strychnine for poultry?

5 mg/kg

11

Where is strychnine rapidly absorbed from?

GI tract

12

What will decrease the toxicity of strychnine?

Vomiting

13

Food in the stomach may do what to the strychnine toxicity?

Increase or decrease toxicity

14

Does strychnine accumulate in a particular area?

No

15

Is strychnine highly protein bound?

No

16

Can strychnine cross the BBB?

Yes

17

Where is strychnine metabolized?
Excreted and in what form?

- Liver
- Urine as both metabolites and unchanged toxin

18

Does strychnine undergo enterohepatic recirculation?

Yes

19

Most of a strychnine dose is eliminated in what amount of time?

About 24 hours

20

Which rodenticide blocks the post-synaptic effect of glycine in spinal cord?

Strychnine

21

What is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter to motor neurons and interneurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and thalamus?

Glycine

22

What are 4 clinical signs that strychnine poisoning can lead to?

- Highly exaggerated reflex arcs
- Muscle spasm
- severe extensor rigidity
- Tonic seizures

23

How fast is the onset of strychnine toxicity?

Rapid onset: 10 mins-2 hours

24

What are 3 early signs of strychnine toxicity?

- Apprehension
- Panting
- Nausea/vomiting

25

Mydriasis, stiffness, muscle twitching and hyperthermia are clinical signs of what rodenticide toxicity?

Strychnine

26

What do the clinical signs of strychnine poisoning progress to?

Tonic seizures and opisthotonos

27

What is opisthotonos?

Tetanic spasm in which spine and extremities are bent with convexity forward, the body resting on head and heels.

28

What is a clinical sign exhibited by dogs with strychnine poisoning?

Sardonic grin

29

Death from strychnine poisoning is due to what?

Respiratory failure

30

Are there lesions seen with strychnine poisoning?

Generally few or none

31

What are 4 antemortem specimens preferred for chemical detection of strychnine poisoning?

- Stomach contents
- Bait
- Serum
- Urine

32

What 3 things are used to diagnose strychnine poisoning?

- History
- Clinical signs
- Lab confirmation

33

What are the 2 main forms of treatment for strychnine poisoning?

- Decontamination
- Supportive/symptomatic care

34

What are 2 forms of decontamination that can be used for strychnine poisoning?

- Emesis if not contraindicated
- Activated charcoal

35

Patients with strychnine poisoning may require what?

Sedation for 24-72 hours

36

What are 4 categories of drugs that should be avoided with strychnine poisoning?

- Opioids
- Phenothiazines
- Neuromuscular blockers
- Dissociated anesthetics

37

What is the prognosis for strychnine poisoning?

Reasonably good