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Flashcards in Mood Disorders Deck (11):

Epidemiology of depression

50% in treatment
Age if onset: 30
18-44 highest rate
Risks: unemployed, separated, divorced, urban, female


WHO estimates depression affects _________ people worldwide, and is projected to increase
The US has similar rates with the world

~ 120 million

Anxiety is the most common mental disorder
Mood disorders (depression, bipolar) also very prevalent


Depression Pathophys unknown
NOT a __________________
No single area of brain pathology
Likely involves alterations in neural circuitry

“chemical imbalance”


Pts sleep and eat more
Lead limbs / lead paralysis
mood reactivity, leaden paralysis, reverse neurovegetative symptoms (increased appetite, weight gain, hypersomnia)

Atypical depression


Often with auditory hallucinations, nihilistic delusions

psychotic depression


More depressed in the morning
mood worse in the morning, early morning awakening, anorexia, weight loss, guilt, psychomotor retardation



Mood typically worsens in the fall and winter, improves in the spring and summer.

Seasonal Affective


Bipolar disorder is best considered on a spectrum, ranging from extreme mood swings to cyclothymia to hypomanias + major depression (Bipolar II) to frank manias (Bipolar I).

Manias can be induced by medications (most often ________) or brain injuries (secondary manias)

antidepressants or steroids


disorder involves periods of severe mood episodes from mania to depression

Bipolar 1
more severe


hypomania that alternate with periods of severe depression.

Bipolar 2


Discuss risk factors for suicide, demographics, and epidemiology.

• 1.4% all deaths in US and the 11th leading cause of death all ages
• 2nd leading cause of death 25-34 year olds
• In the US, ~ 300,000 attempts and 33,000 completed suicides per year.
• 10-15% of patients with severe MDD suicide
• 4:1 Male:Female suicide ratio
• 79 % of those who commit suicides are men
• Women attempt suicide 2-3X more often than men
• 2/3 of all completers had contact with PCP within a month of their suicide
• 56-75% of first attempts end in death
• 3-7% of all attempters will eventually kill themselves