PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: SCHIZOPHRENIA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS: SCHIZOPHRENIA Deck (26):
1

primarily affects thought and behaviour and may
cause people to hear voices, see imaginary things (hallucinations) or
believe that others are controlling their thoughts
(delusions/paranoia)

• Schizophrenia

2

SK onset occurs primarily between the ages of _____ and tends to be earlier in men than in women.

18-25

3

s/s of SK

delusions/paranoia
hallucinations

4

Negative symptoms

Absence of normal behavior
SK socially withdrawn, apathy, etc

5

SK likely has?

Genetic component

Incidence increases if you have a sibling with schizophrenia, 8%; one
parent, 12%, both parents 39% and 60-80% for monozygotic twins

6

SK diagnosis

Delusions
Halluc
Catatonic Behavior
Disorg speech
Negative symptoms

Requires 2+ of above w/ 1 positive symptom for at least 6 months

7

SK has ↑ size of

Lateral Ventricle

8

Brain regions functionally and/or structurally affected in
schizophrenia MRI study

↓ Gray/ white matter/ brain volume

↓ Hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, accumbens

↑ Ventricular volume

*MRI: possible other causes, maybe not SK etiology

9

Neurocognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia

• Episodic memory
• Reward and Salience
• Emotional regulation
• Social cognition

10

DLPFC Neurocognitive dysfunction constantly observed

Changes in Dorso-Lateral- Prefrontal cortex

11

Neuropathological Findings of SK

*↓ size and packing density of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex

• ↓ GABA interneuron proteins and neuronal function in layer III DLPFC

• ↓ dendritic spines and presynaptic axonal inputs

Genes in all three paths contributes to the disorder

12

Neuropathological Findings of SK
↓ dendritic spines and ______ inputs

presynaptic axonal

13

Neuropathological Findings of SK
↓ GABA interneuron proteins and neuronal function in ______

layer III DLPFC

14

Neuropathological Findings of SK
↓ size and packing density of ________ in the prefrontal cortex

pyramidal neurons

15

Hyperactivity of dopamine in the Mesolimbic system and Hypoactivity dopamine in the
Mesocortical system.

Dopamine Theory

16

Hypoactivity of cortical
glutamatergic system

Glutamate Model:

17

Reduced parvalbumin positive
interneurons in laminar III of prefrontal cortex

GABAergic Model:

18

Dopamine Theory

Hyperactivity of dopamine in the Mesolimbic system and Hypoactivity dopamine in the
Mesocortical system.\

↑ VTa- NA and ↓ VTA- Cortex paths

19

________ exacerbates SK and makes normal people act similar to SK

Meth, which has explosive ↑ DA

20

______ effects are important risk factors for the disorder

Genetic

21

Schizophrenia is not ___________, it is a multifactorial trait, with non-genetic (or environmental) factors

completely caused by genes

22

Patterns of transmission in families are_____________, complex trait influenced by a large number of genes, which produce a modest individual increase in risk

inconsistent with single gene of large effect


SK= polygenic

23

_______________ and interactions appear necessary for pattern of risk

Environmental factors

24

Environmental risk factors

• Season of birth
• Prenatal nutrition
• Prenatal infection
• Pregnancy/ birth complications
• Social biology (migration, urbanicity etc.)
• Drug abuse, marijuana use

25

Chlorpromazine

a dopamine antagonist of the typical anti-psychotic class of medications possessing additional antiadrenergic, anti-serotonergic, anticholinergic and antihistaminergic properties used to treat schizophrenia

26

Chlorpromazine ADR

dry mouth, muscle
stiffness, muscle cramping, tremors, EPS and
weight-gain. EPS is a cluster of symptoms
consisting of akathisia, parkinsonism, dystonias.
• EPS more common with typical (1st gen drugs)