Muscles of the Lower Extremity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Muscles of the Lower Extremity Deck (83):
1

Gluteal Compartment muscles

Gluteus Maximus
Gluteus Medius
Gluteus Minimus
Quadratus Femoris
Superior Gemellus
Obdurator Internus
Piriformis
Inferior Gemellus
Tensor of Fascia Lata

2

Anterior Thigh Muscles, innervation

Femoral Nerve (L2-L4)
Femoral Artery
Sartorius
"Quadriceps":
Rectus Femoris
Vastus Medialis/Intermedialis/Lateralis

3

Medial Thigh Muscles, innervation

Obdurator Nerve mostly (L2-L4)
Obdurator artery, possibly femoral artery
Adductor Magnus/Longus/Brevis
Gracilis
Pectineus
Obdurator Externus

4

Posterior Thigh, innervation

Tibial nerve (L4-S3)
Profundis femoris artery
"Hamstrings":
Semitendonosus
Semimembranosus
Biceps Femoris (long and short head)

5

Extension of Hip

Gluteus Maximus --> major
"Hamstrings":
Semitendonosus
Semimembranosus
Biceps Femoris (long head only)

6

Flexion of Hip

Iliopsoas (major)
Rectus Femoris
Sartorius* two joint muscle
Tensor of Fascia Lata

7

Abduct Hip

Gluteus Medius
Gluteus Minimus
Tensor of Fascia Lata

8

Adduct Hip

Adductor Magnus (major) /Brevis/Longus
Gracilis* two joint muscle
Pectineus

9

Lateral Rotator Hip

Gamellus (superior/inferior)
Obdurator (externus/internus)
Quadratus Femoris
Piriformis
Sartorius

10

Medial Rotation Hip

Medial fibers of gluteus medius/minimus

11

Posterior Compartment of Leg, innervation

Tibial Nerve (L4-S3)
Gastronemius, Soleus, Plantaris
Popliteal, Tibial Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus, Flexor Hallucis Longus
Posterior tibial artery

12

Lateral Compartment of Leg, innervation

Fibularis Longus, Fibularis Brevis
Innervated by superficial fibular nerve (L5-S2)
Peroneal artery

13

Anterior Compartment of Leg, innervation

Tibial Anterior, Extensor Digitorum Longus, Extensor Hallucis Longus, Fibularis tertius
Deep fibular nerve, along with dorsum of foot
(L4-S2)
Anterior tibial artery

14

Extensors of Knee

"Quadriceps"
Rectus Femoris
Vastus Lateralis, medialis, intermedialis

15

Flexion of Knee

"Hamstrings":
Semitendonosus
Semimembranosus
Biceps Femoris (long and short heads)
Popliteus
Gastronecmius* 2 joint
Plantaris* 2 joint

16

True extension of ankle

Dorsi-flexion

17

True flexion of ankle

plantar-flexion

18

inversion of ankle

raising medial side

19

eversion of ankle

raising lateral side

20

Muscles for extension/dorsi-flexion

tibialis anterior
extensor hallucis longus
extensor digitorum longus
fibularis tertius (sometimes)

21

Muscles for flexion/plantar-flexion

Tibalis posterior
flexor hallucis longus
flexor digitorum longus
gastronemeus
soleus
plantaris
fibularis longus/brevis (sometimes)

22

Inversion of Foot

Tibialis Anterior (deep fibular nerve) /Tibialis Posterior (tibial nerve)

23

Eversion of foot

Fibularis longus/brevis/tertius
Easier to lose function of eversion than inversion. because mostly by the same nerve (superficial fibular nerve). The tertius is supplied by the deep fibular nerve (anterior compartment of leg) but it's only a weak everter.

24

Talo-crural joint

ankle joint

25

genual joint

knee joint

26

acetabulofemoral joint

hip joint

27

pectineus muscle innervation

femoral and obdurator, even though in medial thigh compartment

28

adductor magnus innervation

posterior part (ischiocondular portion) gets tibial nerve, rest gets femoral nerve because in anterior thigh compartment

29

Only muscle to attach to lesser trochantar of femur

Iliopsoas

30

Gluteus Maximus innervation

Inferior gluteal nerve (L5-S2)
inferior and superior gluteal artery

31

Gluteus medius innervation

Superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)
Superior gluteal artery

32

Gluteus minimus innervation

Superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)
superior gluteal artery

33

Quadratus Femoris innervation

Nerve to quadratus femoris (L4-S1)

34

Superior Gemellus innervation

Nerve to obdurator internus (L5-S2)

35

Obdurator Internus innervation

Nerve to obdurator internus (L5-S2)

36

Inferior Gemellus innervation

Nerve to quadrator femoris (L4-S1)

37

Piriformis innervation

nerve to piriformis (L5-S2)

38

Tensor of fascia lata

superior gluteal nerve (L4-S1)
inferior gluteal artery

39

Contents and location of the adductor canal

Between apex of femoral triangle and adductor hiatus (near knee)
contains femoral artery and vein, saphenous nerve

40

Adductor hiatus

In tendon of adductor magnus near knee, femoral vessels pass posteriorly where name changes to popliteal vessels

41

What contributes to quadriceps tendon

Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis/intermedialis/medialis

42

Innervation of short head of biceps femoris

Common fibular nerve (L5-S2)

43

Borders of the femoral triangle

Inguinal ligament on top, medial adductor longus, lateral is sartorius

44

NAVL in femoral triangle/sheath

femoral nerve (not in femoral sheath), artery, vein, lymphatics
from lateral to medial

45

what happens in the saphenous opening

The saphenous vein drains into the femoral vein after passing through a hole in the anterior fascia lata

46

pes ansenerious

gooses foot, common tendinous attachment of sartorius, gracilis, semitendonosus on lateral side of tibia

47

distal attachment of adductors

linea aspera of femur

48

Joints between tibia and fibula

Three joints:
Proximal --> synovial
Middle and Distal --> syndesmosis (fibrous)

49

Purpose of superior and inferior extensor retinaculum

Holds the tendons of anterior compartment (ankle extensors) in place in the foot

50

What gives rise to the dorsalis pedis artery

anterior tibial artery on dorsum of foot

51

Purpose of superior and inferior peroneal retinaculum

Holds the tendons of peroneal longus and brevis in place in the foot

52

Popliteus muscle specific function

Unlocks and initiates flexion of the knee.
Location: between joint cavity and lateral collateral ligament. Runs lateral to medial as you go inferior. Tendon attaches to lateral side of femur, provides more protection to the lateral side of genual joint.

53

Tom dick and harry in foot vs in calf, medial to lateral.

In foot: Flexor hallucis longus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus.
In calf: Flexor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus.
Order switches when the tendons wrap around the medial malleolus.
Notice tibialis posterior is always in the middle

54

Tendo-calcaneus

The achilles tendon. Gastronemius and soleus contribute, reaches down to calcaneus.

55

What separates the anterior and posterior compartments of leg

Interosseous membrane

56

Ligaments of acetabulofemoral/hip joint

Iliofemoral, Ischiofemoral, Pubofemoral
Acetabular labrum -- Ring of cartilage around acetabulum (hip socket) increase articular surface area

57

parts of knee joint

Two tibia-femoral joints (medial and lateral) --> weightbearing
One patella femoral joint --> helps quadriceps gain leverage

58

What type of bone is patella

semasoid, bc grows inside tendon

59

All ligaments of knee

Posterior/Anterior cruciate ligaments
Lateral/Medial collateral ligaments
medial/lateral menisci

60

Attachments of PCL and ACL

ACL attached to anterior tibia and posterior lateral femur, also to medial meniscus
PCL to posterior tibia and anterior medial femur
Medial and Lateral placements still between two condyles

61

Lateral Collateral Ligament vs. Medial Collateral Ligament

Lateral Loose, injured less often, stronger and narrower
Medial connected to medial meniscus, injured more often, weaker, thin and broad

62

Unhappy triad of the knee

MCL, medial meniscus, ACL. All attached to each other. All injured at the same time when there is a lateral push to the knee on a fixed leg.

63

Medial meniscus vs. Lateral meniscus

Medial is Cshaped, Lateral is O shaped
Both attached to tibia via coronary ligaments
Both help in articular efficiency

64

Prepatellar bursa

On top of patella

65

Suprapatellar bursa

Under quadriceps tendon, communicates with joint cavity

66

Infrapatellar bursa

Under patella

67

Most common ankle sprain

Inversion, affecting lateral ligament, specifically anterior talofibular ligament or second most common calcaneofibular ligament

68

Three lateral ligaments of ankle

anterior talofibular ligament
calcaneofibular ligament
posterior talofibular ligament

69

Deltoid ligament of ankle

Medial ligament of ankle, has many ligaments that make it up

70

Calcaneus

Heel bone

71

Talus

The tarsal bone where the tibia and fibula articulate to

72

Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament

Spring Ligament
key in maintaining the longitudinal arch
Present on the medial aspect

73

Pes planus

Flat footedness, usually caused by the spring ligament

74

The 8 muscles that cross two joints

Gracilis --> Flex knee, adduct hip,
Biceps Femoris (long head) --> extend hip, flex knee
Semimembranosus --> extend hip, flex knee
Semitendonosus --> extend hip, flex knee
Rectus Femoris --> flex hip, extend knee
Sartorius --> flex hip, flex knee
Gastronemius --> plantar-flex (flexion) of ankle, weak flexion of knee
Plantaris --> plantar flex of ankle, flexion of knee

75

Lasegue Sign

Sciatic nerve disease. Pain with extension of hip/knee
Differentiation on the two sides

76

Trendelenberg Gait

Damage to superior sciatic nerve
Damage to abductor function, sway side to side when walking bc you wouldn't be able to maintain center of gravity

77

Foot-Drop

Damage to common fibular
Cannot extend the ankle, leads to violent drop of foot.

78

sensory of heel

medial calcaneal branch of tibial nerve

79

Sensory for medial plantar surface, first three toes

medial plantar branch of tibial nerve

80

sensory for lateral plantar surface, last two toes

lateral plantar branch of tibial nerve

81

sensation for dorsum of foot

superficial fibular nerve

82

Two extrinsic foot muscles and innervations

Extensor digitorum brevis, Extensor Hallucis Brevis
Innervated by the deep fibular nerve
Extend the toes

83

Three arches in foot

medial, longitudinal, lateral transverse