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Flashcards in Lecture 3 Deck (22):
1

Nervous system classification

CNS (Brain and Spinal Cord), PNS (everything else, divided into spinal and cranial nerves)

2

orienting spinal cord/vertebra

Spinal process is posterior, split in spinal cord is anterior

3

spinal cord white and grey matter orientation

Gray matter is in the inside, white matter is in the outside (flipped from brain). Gray matter is where the cell bodies are, white matter is axons

4

Tract

Collection of axons/fibers found w/i CNS

5

Nucleus

Collection of somas found within CNS, not to be confused with nucleus at a cell

6

Nerve

A collection of nerve cell processes found outside the CNS

7

Layers of Nerve Trunk

outer covering epineurium --> sorrounds multiple fascicles/fasiculus-->Each one covered by a perineurium
-->each fascicle/fasiculus contains multiple neurons --> each neuron myelin sheath surrounded by endoneurium

8

Ganglia

Collection of nerve cell bodies (somas) found outside the CNS. notably the dorsal root ganglion

9

Afferent vs. Efferent

Afferent are sensory axons conduction electrical impulses towards the CNS in dorsal root. Are often unipolar
Efferent are motor axons conducting electrical impulses towards the PNS in ventral root. Are often bipolar

10

dermatoms

Different skin segments related to different spinal nerves

11

dorsal root vs. ventral root

Dorsal root only contains afferent nerves, ventral root contains only efferent nerves. In spinal nerve the two fibers co-exist

12

Reflex Arc

Goes through the dorsal root ganglion, afferent-->interneuron (almost always here)-->efferent (ventral root) OR afferent --> inhibitory neuron --> Efferent.

13

Dorsal Ramus innervates?

Deep back muscles, Overlying Skin

14

Ventral Ramus innervates

Everything else, including superficial and intermediate back muscles

15

spinal nerves naming

C1-C7 names for vertebra under nerve, nerve C8 has T1 vertebra under it, Nerves T1-C1 named for vertebra above nerve. T1 nerve located between T1 and T2, below T1.

16

Conus medullaris

End of the spinal cord, ends in a cone around L1/L2.

17

Cauda Equina

The nerves extending beyond the root of the spinal cord, looks like a horse's tail.

18

Filium Terminale

Not paired, not a nerve, just the end of the pia mater that extends down from the conus medullaris. Helps anchor the lower part of the spinal cord

19

Spinal Meninges

Dura mater (hard), Arachnoid Mater (webby), Pia Mater (delicate, cannot be distinguished from surface of the spinal cord)

20

Epidural Space

Outside the dura mater, inside vertabral foramen, where anesthesia is placed, bc gets rid of the sensory while maintaining the motor

21

Subarachnoid space

Between arachnoid/pia layers. Space large enough around cauda equina to safely withdraw cerebral spinal fluid.

22

Denticulate ligaments

Extension of the pia mater that inserts into the dura mater, anchors the spinal cord within the vertebral column