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Flashcards in The upper extremity Deck (90):
1

Extrinsic muscles of shoulder

Trapezius
Latissimus Dorsi
Levator Scapulae
Rhomboid Major and Minor

2

Trapezius function and innervation

Spinal Accessory Nerve (Cranial nerve 11)
elevates, depresses and retracts the scapula.
rotate the glenoid cavity superiorly

3

Lat dorsi function and innervation

To extend, adduct and medially rotate the arm
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6-C8)

4

Levator Scapulae function and innervation

Elevates the scapula
Dorsal Scapular nerve, cervical nerves C3 C4

5

Rhomboid major/minor function and innervation

Retract scapula and rotate it to depress glenoid cavity
Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C4-C5)

6

Intrinsic Muscles of Shoulder

Deltoid
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres Minor
Teres Major
Subscapularis

7

Deltoid function and innervation

anterior part: Flexes and medially rotates,
middle part: abducts
posterior part: Extends and lateral rotates
Axillary nerve (C5, C6)

8

Supraspinatus function and innervation

Inserts into greater tubercle of humerus, initiates abduction.
IS NOT a rotator even though labelled a rotator cuff muscle.
Suprascapular nerve (C5-C6)

9

Infraspinatus function and innervation

Inserts into greater tubercle of humerus, laterally rotates arm.
Suprascapular nerve (C5-C6)

10

Teres Minor function and innervation

Inserts into greater tubercle of humerus
Laterally rotates arm
Axillary Nerve (C5, C6)

11

Teres Major function and innervation

Inserts into intertubercular groove of humerus.
Adducts and medially rotates arm
Lower Subscapular nerve (C5, C6)

12

Subscapularis function and innervation

Upper and lower subscapular nerve (C5-C6)
Inserts into lesser tubercle of humerus
Medially rotates and adducts arm

13

Rotator Cuff Muscles

Supraspinatus --> Superior to scapula
Infraspinatus --> Posterior to scapula
Teres Minor --> Posterior to scapula
Subscapularis --> Anterior to scapula

14

Shoulder (glenohumeral) ligaments

Coracoacromial ligament --> creates a vault for the head of the humerus
Three glenohumeral ligament --> between glenoid fossa of scapula and humerus
Coracohumeral ligament
Glenoidal labrum

15

Sacroacromial bursa location

Under acromion, above supraspinatus ligament. Can communicate with joint cavity if the ligaments break down.

16

Possible movements of arm

abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, medial rotation, lateral rotation

17

What passes through quadrangular space

Axillary Nerve
Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery

18

What passes through triangular interval

radial nerve and deep artery of arm

19

What does the long head of the biceps pass under?

Transverse humeral ligament

20

anatomical vs. surgical head of humerus

Anatomical head is above surgical head (narrower here)

21

What does the axillary sheath contain?

cords of brachial plexus, axillary vein(medial) and artery

22

Anterior compartment of arm

Biceps brachii
Brachialis
Coracobrachialis
All flexors
All innervated by musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7)

23

Posterior compartment of arm

Triceps brachii (main extensor)
Anconeus (assists in extension)
Extension of elbow
Innervated by Radial Nerve (C5-T1)

24

Biceps Brachii function

Supinates forearm and flexes elbow.
Insertion is the radius via the bicipital aponeurosis.

25

Coracobrachialis function

Flexes and adducts the shoulder. Insertion is humerus

26

Brachialis function

Main flexor of the elbow. Insertion on ulna.

27

Anterior Fore-arm muscles lateral to medial, innervation

All flexors
Receive median nerve innervation
Superficial (lateral to medial):
Pronator Teres
Flexor Carpe Radialis
Palmaris Longus
Flexor Carpe Ulnaris
Flexor digitorum superficialis (actually deep to top four)
Deep:
Flexor Pollicis Longus
Flexor digitorum Profundus
Pronator Quadratus (deep to flexor pollicis longus)

28

Deep anterior fore-arm muscles

Flexor Pollicis Longus (lateral)
Flexor digitorum Profundus (medial)
Pronator Quadratus (deep to flexor pollicis longus)

29

Superficial anterior fore-arm muscles
lateral -->medial

Pronator Teres
Flexor Carpe Radialis
Palmaris Longus
Flexor Carpe Ulnaris
Flexor digitorum superficialis (actually deep to top four)

30

Common Flexor Tendon function

Attaches all superficial fore-arm flexors to medial epicondyle of humerus

31

Pronator Teres function

pronates and flexes forearm, attaches to radius

32

Flexor Carpe Radialis function

Flexes wrist, abducts wrist

33

Palmaris Longus function

holds plantar aponeurosis tight, flexes hand

34

Flexor Carpe Ulnaris function and innervation

Flexes wrist, adducts wrist
Innervated by ulnar nerve, exception to median nerve rule of anterior fore-arm

35

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis function

flexes proximal IP joint

36

Flexor Pollicis Longus function

Flexes both phalanges of thumb

37

Flexor Digitorum Profundus function and innervation

Flexes distal IP joint, also flexes wrist and metacarpal joint
Lateral part median nerve, Medial part ulnar nerve.

38

Pronator quadratus function

Initiates pronation of fore-arm, holds radius and ulna together

39

Flexor Retinaculum function

Creates roof of carpal tunnel

40

Contents of carpal tunnel

9 tendons + nerve
Flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus
Flexor pollicis longus
median nerve

41

What does the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm branch off of

Off of the Musculocutaneous nerve, it becomes cutaneous in the forearm

42

Brachioradialis innervation, function, location

Innervation: Radial Nerve
Location: Posterior compartment
Function: Flexor
Evolutionarily might have been an extensor, which explains its innervation

43

position of ulnar nerve at elbow

Very superficial, just posterior to medial epicondyle --> what causes the funny bone sensation

44

Posterior compartment of forearm, lateral to medial

Radial nerve innervation
Mostly extensors of wrist
Superficial:
Brachioradialis (actually flexor of forearm)
Extensor Carpe Radialis longus
Extensor Carpe Radialis brevis
Extensor digitorum
Extensor Digiti Minimi
Extensor Carpe Ulnaris
Anconeus
Deep:
Supinator
Abductor Pollicis Longus
Extensor Pollicis Brevis
Extensor Pollicis Longus
Extensor Indicis

45

Superficial posterior fore-arm

Extensor carpe radialis longus
Extensor carpe radialis brevis
Extensor digitorum
Extensor digiti minimi
Extensor carpe ulnaris

46

Deep posterior fore-arm

Supinator
Abductor pollicis longus
Extensor pollicis brevis
Extensor pollicis longus
Extensor Indicis

47

Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL)

Extends/abducts wrist

48

Extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB)

Extends/abducts wrist

49

Extensor digitorum (ED)

Extends the proximal phalanges of the four fingers

50

Extensor digiti minimi (EDM)

Extends metacarpals, secondarily at proximal IP

51

Extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)

Extends hand w/ extensor carpe radialis longus/brevis
Adducts hand w/ FCU

52

Supinator

Prime mover for slow, unopposed supination, esp. w/ forearm extended

53

Abductor pollicis longus (APL)

Acts w/ abductor pollicis brevis

54

Extensor pollicis brevis (EPB)

Extends MCP joint (+ also carpometacarpal joint)

55

Extensor pollicis longus (EPL)

Extends interphalangeal joint (+ also other 2 thumb joints)

56

Extensor indicis

Extends proximal interphalangeal joint

57

Three radio-ulnar joints names and types

Proximal and Distal are synovial
Middle is syndesmosis

58

Carpal Bones

Scaphoid
Lunate
Triquitrium
Pisiform
Hamate
Capitate
Trapezium
Trapezoid
So Long To Pinky Here Comes The Thumb

59

What bone is Pisiform associated with

Triquitrium

60

What bones do the radius articulate with

The Scaphoid and Lunate

61

Joints between the carpal bones

anterior, posterior, interosseus ligaments

62

Thenar muscles and innervation

On the thumb side, innervated by the median nerve
Abductor pollicis brevis (lateral)
Flexor Pollicis brevis (medial)
Opponens pollicis (deep)

63

Hypothenar muscles and innervation

On the pinky side, innervated by the ulnar nerve
Abductor digiti minimi (medial)
Flexor digiti minimi (lateral)
Opponens digiti minimi (deep)

64

Adductor compartment

Adductor pollicis, has two heads
ulnar nerve
Deep to abductor and flexor pollicis brevis

65

Lumbrical muscle innervation and function

Bye-bye motion, flex metacarpals
1-2 are median, 3-4 are ulnar

66

Interosseous muscles

All ulnar nerve
Dorsal ABduct --> Abduct digits 2-5
Palm ADduct --> Adduct digits 2, 4, 5. Digit 3 cannot be adducted because it is in the middle.
PAD DAB

67

Anatomical Snuffbox boundaries

Anterior (towards palm) --> Abductor Pollicis Longus , Extensor Pollicis Brevis (both posterior fore-arm)
Posterior (towards dorsum of hand) --> Extensor Pollicis Longus (also posterior fore-arm)
Contains radial artery, radial styloid process, base of 1st metacarpal, scaphoid, trapezium

68

Three parts of elbow joint

trochlea of humerus to trochlear notch of ulna --> hinge joint
Capitulum of humerus to head of radius --> gliding joint
Head of radius to radial notch in ulna --> rotation joint

69

Ligaments of elbow joint

Annular ligament of radius (goes all the way around the radius, holds it in place)
Ulnar collateral ligament
Radial Collateral ligament
Collateral ligaments attach each bone to the humerus

70

Wrist joint

Radius articulates with scaphoid and lunate

71

Branches of axillary artery

Superior Thoracic
Thoracoacromial
Lateral Thoracic
Subscapular --> which turns into thoracodorsal
anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries

72

When does the axillary artery turn into the brachial artery

After the teres major

73

Three exceptions to brachial plexus root values

All exceptions off posterior cord
Axillary Nerve C5, C6
Thoracodorsal Nerve C6-C8
Upper and Lower subscapular nerve C5-C6

74

What does the axillary nerve become in the arm

The lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm

75

What does the radial nerve become in the fore-arm

The posterior cutaneous nerve of the fore-arm

76

What does the musculocutaneous nerve become in the forearm

The lateral cutaneous nerve of the fore-arm

77

What muscles in hand are innervated by median nerve

1st and 2nd lumbricle
Opponens pollicis
Abductor pollicis brevis
Flexor pollicis brevis
Meat LOAF

78

Lateral femoral cutaneous

L2-L3

79

Genitofemoral

L1-L2

80

Iliohypogastric

T12-L1

81

Ilioinguinal

L1

82

Pudendal

S2-S4

83

Common peroneal

L4-S2

84

Tibial

L4-S3

85

Inferior gluteal

L5-S2

86

Superior gluteal

L4-S1

87

Femoral

L2-L4

88

Obdurator nerve

L2-L4

89

Deep peroneal

L4-S2

90

Superficial peroneal

L5-S2