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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (28):

What makes up the axial skeleton

Skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs. Older evolutionarily.


Appendicular Skeleton

Upper Limb (humerus, radius, ulna), Pectoral girdle (clavicle, scapula), lower limb (femur(thigh), patella, fibula, tibia (both leg)) pelvic girdle (illium, pubis, ischium are all attached by the sacral-illiac joint) make up one half of pelvic girdle, the two halves are attached by the pelvic joint


Vertebral column, types of ribs and how many of each

Cervical spine (C7), Thoracic Spine (T12), Lumbar Spine (L5), Sacrum (5 fused bones), Coccyx (4 fused bones). Total 33 bones


curvature of vertebral column during development and adulthood

Development --> the thoracic curve is concave to the anterior, only one that exists in embryo/fetus.
Adulthood (all to the anterior)--> cervical convex (developed when head lifts), thoracic concave, lumbar convex (developed when standing/walking), sacral concave



Curvature from left to right



Excessive concave thoracic curvature, seen in older women (stooping)



Excessive convex lumbar curvature, seen in pregnant women


Why is the cord shorter than the vertebral column, and where does it end

The chord finishes developing before the vertebral column can assume full length. Ends at L1/L2. There are sacral/coccygeal cords but they extend beyond the root and some out at the vertebra below


Lumbar Vertebra, 2 main parts of a typical vertebra

The "typical" vertebra, two main parts ( body, vertebral arch).
Lumbar vertebra are the largest vertebra, because they are load-bearing


Parts and processes coming off of vertebral arch

Made of 2 pedicles coming off of body, and two lamina meeting at spinal processes
2 transverse processes, 4 articular processes (2 superior, 2 inferior), 1 spinous process


Cervical vertebra

Have transverse foramen (holes through transverse processes, vertebral artery, vertebral veins, spinal nerves pass through them), bifid spinous process, transverse plane separates articular processes.


Special Vertebra

C1--> Atlas, C2--> Axis, C7--> vertebra prominens


Atlas unique characteristics

Atlas articulates with occipital chondyle superiorly, and with the dens of Axis inferiorly. The atlas lacks a vertebral body, instead has the anterior tubercle opposing the vertebral arch, surrounding vertebral foramen.


Axis unique characteristics

Axis articulates with axis superiorly through the dens (meets with the anterior tubercle, held in place by a ligament). The dens was the atlas's vertebral body that merged with the axis during development.


Atlas and Axis functions

atlas with occipital chondyle --> nodding head
atlas with axis --> turning head side to side


Thoracic vertebra unique characteristics

Increase in size T1-T12. Have transverse, superior and inferior costal facets. One rib articulates with it's vertebra's transverse and superior facets, and forms demi-facet with inferior facet of above vertebra


sacral vertebrae,

Called sacral bc holy bone, was used in sacrifice, fused from 5 vertebra. Has sacral canal for nerves, posterior/anterior foramen on either side of central sacral promontory (only seen on anterior side). Articulates with L5 and coccyx.



Coccyx (coccygeal greek for cuckoo bird) fused from 3-4 vertebrae, serves as attachment site for muscles (vestigial of tails) but can be broken and cause pain (clinical relevance)


Joint definition and types

Joint --> Junction of 2 parts of the skeleton. Can be either fibro-cartilaginous (unmoving, further divided into fibrous/synarthorosis or cartilaginous/amphiarthrosis) or synovial (also called diarthrosis). Many sub-types in each category


Joints of vertebral column

invertebral disks, type of fibrocartilaginous joint known as a symphysis (specifically cartaliginous, allow for some movement). Make up 1/3 length of the vertebral column


Joints of the vertebral arches

Zygapohyseal facet joints, type of synovial joint. zyga --> means two; apohyseal --> means joint


Sub-occipital region joints

Atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints are synovial


Joints between ribs and costal processes

Costo-vertebral and costo-transverse (both synovial joints)


Tendon vs. ligament; aponeurosis

Ligament --> Short bands of fibrous, connective tissue which attaches bone to bone, keeps structures stable
Tendon --> Fibrous connective tissue attaches muscle to bone
Aponeurosis --> Broad flat tendon that attaches muscles to bone or to other muscles


Ligaments of vertebral column

Anterior longitudinal ligament--> anterior side of vertebral bodies
ligament flavium -->posterior side of vertebral foramen
posterior longitudinal ligament--> posterior side of vertebral bodies/anterior side of vertebral foramen
supraspinous ligament --> posterior side of spinal processes
interspinous ligament --> between the spinal processes


Inter-vertebral foramen

Where the spinal nerve radicle (root) emerges from the spinal cord. Situated directly opposite to the intervertebral disks. Also radicular arteries that bring blood to cord enter here.


parts of intervertebral disks

Anulus (means ring in latin) fibrosus on the outside, nucleus pulposus on the inside


Direction of herniated disk

When nucleus pulposus either extends out or ruptures through anulus pulposus. Will happen posterio-laterally because that is the direction where there are not ligaments holding the disk in place.