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Flashcards in Neck Deck (108):
1

What are the 4 deep cervical fascia?

1. Investing deep fascial layer
2. Pretracheal fascia
3. Carotid Sheath
4. Prevertebral Layer

2

What is contained in the superficial cervical fascia?

Platysma

3

What is contained in the Investing deep fascial layer?

1. SCM
2. Trapezius

4

What is contained in the pretracheal fascai?

1. Thyroid gland
2. Parathyroid gland
3. Trachea
4. Esophagus

5

What is contained in the Carotid Sheath?

1. Lateral - Internal Jugular Vein
2. Medial - Common Carotid and Internal Carotid Artery
3. Posterior - Vagus Nerve

*Deep Cervical Lymph Nodes

6

This forms the fascial floor of the posterior triangle?

Prevertebral Layer

7

It is a potential space bounded by deep cervical fascia

Retropharyngeal Space

8

Only bone that does not articulate with another bone

hyoid bone

9

Level of hyoid bone at cervical vertebra

C3

10

What are the Suprahyoid Muscles

1. Mylohyoid
2. Geniohyoid
3. Digastric
4. Stylohyoid

11

What are the Infrahyoid Muscles

Superficial
1. Sternothyroid
2. Omohyoid
Deep
1. Thyrohyoid
2. Sternothyroid

12

what is the function of suprahyoid muscle

elevates the hyoid bone

13

Nerve supply of ant. belly of digastric

Nerve to mylohyoid V3

14

Nerve supply of post. belly of digastric

facial

15

Nerve supply to stylohyoid

facial

16

Nerve supply to mylohyoid

nerve to mylohyoid V3

17

Nerve supply to geniohyoid

first cervical nerve

18

Nerve supply to omohyoid

Ansa cervicalis C1, C2, C3

19

Nerve supply to sternohyoid

Ansa cervicalis C1, C2, C3

20

Nerve supply to sternothyroid

Ansa cervicalis C1, C2, C3

21

nerve supply to thyrohyoid

C1

22

Depresses the hyoid

1. omohyoid
2. sternohyoid
3. thyrohyoid

23

Depress the larynx

1. sternothyroid

24

Elevate the larynx

1. thyrohyoid

25

Composition of the anterior triangle of the neck

1. submental
2. submandibular
3. carotid
4. muscular

26

Composition of the posterior triangle of the neck

1. occipital
2. supraclavicular

27

what is the unpaired triangle of the neck

submental triangle

28

Boundary of Submental Triangle

1. anterior belly of digastric
2. hyoid bone
3. mylohyoid (floor)

29

Boundary of Submandibular Triangle

1. anterior belly of digastric
2. posterior belly of digastric
3. mandible

30

Boundary of Carotid Triangle

1. antior SCM
2. Superior belly of omohyoid
3. posterior belly of digastric

31

Bounday of Muscular Triangle

1. ant midline of neck
2. anterior SCM
3. Superior belly of omohyoid

32

Boundary of occipital triangle

1. posterior SCM
2. Trapezius
3. inferior belly of omohyoid

33

Boundary of supraclavicular triangle

1. clavicle
2. inferior belly of omohyoid
3. post SCM

34

Contents of muscular triangle

1. sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid
2. thyroid, parathyroid, larynx

35

Contents of the Posterior Triangle

5 muscles
1. scalene anterior
2. scalene middle
3. levator scapular
4. splenius
5. omohyoid
4 arteries
1. Subclavian artery
2. transverse cervical artery
3. suprascapular artery
4. occipital artery
3 nerves
1. Accesory Nerve
2. Brachial Plexus
3. Cervical Plexus
2 veins
1. subclavian vein
2. external jugular vein

36

Blood Supply of Thyroid Artery

1. Superior Thyroid Artery - ECA
2. Inferior Thyroid Artery - Thyrocervical Trunk

37

Venous Drainage of Thyroid Artery

1. Superior Thyroid Vein - IJV
2. Middle Thyroid Vein - IJV
3. Inferior Thyroid Vein - Brachiocephalic

38

Where does the pyramidal lobe usually project?

Left o the midline

39

Perentage of people with thyroidea Ima Artery

12%

40

This is the first endocrine gland to develop?

Thyroid Gland

41

When does the thyroid gland develop?

24 days after fertilization

42

Most common site of ectopic thyroid gland

Lingual

43

Primary Tumors within the oral cavitiy and lip metastasize to what lymph node

I, II, III

44

Primary Tumors within the oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx metastasize to what lymph node

II, III, IV

45

Primary Tumors within the nasopharynx and thyroid metastasize to what lymph node

V

46

What cervical vertebra does pharynx becomes continuous with esophagus

C6

47

What is the shape of the pharynx

Funnel shaped

48

3 parts of the pharynx

1. nasopharynx
2. oropharynx
3. laryngopharynx

49

Content of nasopharynx

1. opening of auditory tube
2. pharyngeal tonsils

50

Innervation of nasopharynx

Maxillary Nerve (V2)

51

Contents of oropharynx

1. palatine tonsil
2. lingual tonsil

52

Innervation of oropharynx

Glosopharyngeal Nerve

53

Content of laryngopharynx

1. opens into larynx and esophagus

54

Innervation of laryngopharynx

1. Internal Laryngeal Nerve
2. Vagus Nerve

55

Blood Supply of Pharynx

1. ascending pharyngeal
2. Tonsillar branches of facial
3. Branches of maxillary and lingual arteries

56

What are the outer circular layer muscles of the pharynx

1. inferior constrictor muscle
a. cricopharyngeus
b. thyropharyngeus
2. middle constrictor muscle
3. superior constrictor muscle

57

What is the purpose of outer circular layer muscle of the pharynx?

Porpel bolus downwards

58

What are the inner longitudinal layer muscles of the pharynx

1. stylopharyngeus
2. salhpingopharyngeus
3. palatopharyngeus

59

What is the function of the inner longitudinal layer muscles of the pharynx

Shorten and widen the pharynx

60

Outpouching of the laryngopharynx

Zenker Diverticulum

61

What is the lymph drainage of the pharynx

Deep cervical Lymph Nodes

62

What nerve can be possibly damaged during a tonsillectomy

Glossopharyngeal nerve

63

Composition of the waldeyer's ring

upper: pharyngeal tonsil/adenoids
lateral: palatine and tubal tonsils
lower: lingual tonsil

64

afferent limb of the gag reflex

Pharyngeal branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve

65

efferent limb of the gag reflex

pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve

66

Where does the larynx lie?

C4 - C6

67

Unpaired laryngeal cartilages

1. thyroid
2. cricoid
3. epiglottis

68

Paired laryngeal cartilage

1. arytenoid
2. cuneiform
3. corniculate

69

How many cartilage does the larynx have

9

70

Membranes/Ligaments of the Larynx

1. thyrohyoid membrane
2. cricotracheal ligament
3. quadrangualar membrane
4. cricothyroid ligament

71

Cricoid Cartilage is what cervical area

C6

72

It is located inferior to the thyroid cartilage and superior to the cricoid cartilage. True vocal cords lie superior to it

Cricothyroid Ligament/Membrane

73

Vestibular Fold

1. fixed
2. formed by mucous membrane covering the VESTIBULAR ligament
3. vascular: pink in color

74

Vocal fold

1. movable
2. formed by mucous membrane covering the VOCAL ligament
3. avascular: white in color

75

What nerve maybe injured during ligation of the superior thyroid artery

External laryngeal nerve

76

Blood supply of larynx

1. upper - superior laryngeal branch of superior thyroid artery
2. lower - lower laryngeal branch of inferior thyroid artery

77

Lymph drainage of larynx

Deep cervical lymph nodes

78

Sensory innervation above the vocal cord area

Internal Laryngeal Nerve of the Superior Larnygeal nerve of the vagus nerve

79

Nerve supply to the cricothyroid

External Laryngeal Nerve of the Superior Laryngeal nerve of the vagus nerve

80

Motor Nerve supply to muscles of phonation except cricothyroid
Sensory below the vocal cord area

Inferior laryngeal nerve/recurrent laryngeal nerve of the vagus nerve

81

Action of Cricothyroid

Tensor

82

Action of Posterior Cricoarytenoid

Abductor (PAB)

83

Action of Lateral Cricoarytenoid

Adductor (LAD)

84

Action of Thyroarytenoid

Relaxor

85

What is the innervation of posterior, lateral cricoarytenoid and thyroarytenoid

Inferior/Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

86

What is the innvervation of cricothyroid

External Laryngeal Nerve

87

What muscle allow air movement through the larynx

Lateral cricoarytenoid

88

Superior laryngeal nerve lesion

1. asyptomatic
2. fibers are mainly sensory
3. if external branch - mild hoarseness/monotonous speech

89

Inferir laryngeal/ Recurrent laryngeal nerve

1. fix vocal cord and transient hoarseness

90

Which recurrent laryngeal nerve is injured more commonly

1. LEFT - because it hooks around arch of aorta

2. right - hooks around right subclavian artery

91

Blood supply of parathyroid gland

1. superior thyroid artery
2. inferior thyroid artery

92

Venous supply of parathyroid gland

1. supple thyroid vein
2. middle thyroid vein
3. inferior thyroid vein

93

Lymph drainage of parathyroid gland

1. deep cervical
2. paratracheal

94

What are the cells produced by the parathyroid gland

1. chief cells - PTH
2. oxyphil cells

95

What are the cells produced by the thyroid horone

1. follicular cells - T3, T4
2. Parafollicular cells - calcitonin

96

Development of the inferior parathyroid gland

3rd pharyngeal pouch

97

Development of the superior parathyroid gland

4th pharyngeal pouch

98

Development of ectopic parathyroid gland

seen in the superior mediastinum
close relationship between inferior paratyhroid and thymus

99

Muscles innvervated by ansa cervicalis

1. Sternohyoid
2. Omohyoid
3. Sternothyroid

S.O.S

100

Cutaneous Branches of Cervical Plexus

1. Lesser occipital (C2)
2. Greater auricular (C2 and C3)
3. Transverse cutaneous (C2 and C3)
4. Supraclavicular (C3 and C4)

101

Muscular Branches of Cervical Plexus

1. Ansa Cervicalis (C1, C2, C3)
2. Phrenic Nerve (C3, C4, C5)

102

Where does phrenic nerve pass

1. Posterior - subclavian vein
2. Anterior - sublavian artery
3. Lateral - common carotid artery

103

What are the zones of penetrating neck trauma

Zone 1, 2 ,3

104

It pertains to a neck trauma that includes the root of the neck and extends from the clavicles and manubrium to the level of inferior border of the cricoid cartilage

Zone 1

105

It pertains to a neck trauma that extends fro the cricoid cartilage to the level of the angle of mandible

Zone 2

106

It pertains to a neck trauma above the level of the angle of the mandible

Zone 3

107

These injures to the neck obstruct the airway

Zone 1 and 3

108

Most common zone injured in the neck

Zone 2 - vascular damage may be controlled by direct pressure