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31

Forebrain structures

Forebrain = prosencephalon = telencephalon + diencephalon = cerebral hemispheres + lateral ventricles + thalamus + third ventricle

32

Midbrain structures

Mesencephalon = midbrain + aqueduct

33

Hindbrain structures

Rhombencephalon = Metencephalon + myeloncephalon = (Pons + Cerebellum + Upper part of 4th ventricle) + (Medulla + lower part of 4th ventricle)

34

Neuroectoderm gives rise to?

CNS neurons, ependymal cells, oligodendroglia, astrocytes

35

Neural crest cells give rise

PNS neurons and Schwann cells. Neural crest is PNS-only!

36

Mesoderm gives rise

Microglia (resident macrophages of the CNS). MESO for MICRO.

37

Neuropore failing to fuse when? Connects what structures?

Wk 4. Pore is FOUR. Connects spinal canal with amniotic cavity. increased alpha-fetoprotein in fluid and serum. Increased AChE in amniotic fluid is confirmatory

38

Spina bifida occulta vs. meningocele vs. meningomyelocele?

Spina bifidia = failure of bony canal to close but NO herniation and intact dura. Associated w/ tuft of hair or skin dimple (lower vertebrae). Meningocele has meningial herniation (normal AFP) whereas meningomyelocele has both meninges and spinal cord herniation.

39

Anencephaly vs. holoprosencephaly

No forebrain and open calvarium vs. failure of hemispheres to separate. Anecephaly findings include increased AFP, polyhdramnios (b/c don't swallow). Associated with DMT1. Holoprosencephaly has complex multifactorial etio. Mod. form has cleft lip/palate while severe form -> cyclopia

40

Chiari II vs. Dandy-Walker

Significant herniation of cerebellar tonsils and versus w/ aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus. Often w/ myelomeningocele. Dandy is AGENESIS of vermis with cystic enlargement of 4th ventricle. Hydrocephalus and spin bifida.

41

Syringomyelia

Cape-like b/l loss of pain and temperature but OK fine touch. Most common at C8-T1. Associated with Chiari I (>3-5 mm tonsillar octopi and asymptomatic till older).

42

Tongue development overview

Anterior 2/3 with 1st and 2nd branchial arches (Sensation V3 and taste VII). Posterior 1/3 from 3-4th branchial arches (sensation and taste IX, X in back). XII is muscle.

43

Nissl substance located where?

Dendrites and cell body. NOT axon.

44

Astrocyte vs. Microglia

Support cell with reactive gliosis derived from NEUROECTODERM VS CNS phagocytes from MESODERM.

45

Pain and temperature sensory?

Free nerve endings found in skin, epidermis, and some viscera. C nerves are slow, unmyelinated. Adelta are fast myelinated.

46

Meissner corpuscle

Dynamic, fine touch, propioception. Glabrous (hairless skin). Large, myelinated, adapt quickly. "A fine hairless adaptable miss."

47

Pacinian corpuscle

Vibration and pressure. Deep skin, ligaments, joints. Large, myelinated, adapt quickly. "Deeply packed and pressurized Pacinian corpuscle."

48

Merkel discs

Pressure, deep static touch, propio. Basal epidermal layer, hair follicles. Large, myelinated fibers, adapt slowly.

49

Name the three parts of peripheral nerve?

Endoneurium, Perineurium, Epineurium

50

Endoneurium

SINGLE nerve fiber layer. Infiltrate in Guillan Barre.

51

Perineurium

Surrounds fascicle of nerve fibers. Permability barrier. Rejoined by microsurgery for limb reattachment.

52

Epineurium

Dense CT surrounding entire nerve.

53

NE change in disease? and location of synthesis?

Increased in anxiety and decreased in depression. Locus ceruleus (pons)

54

DA change in disease? and location of synthesis?

Inc. in HD. Dec. in Parkinson's and depression. Ventral tegmentum and SNc (midbrain)

55

5-HT change in disease? and location of synthesis?

Inc. in Parkinsons. Dec. in depression and anxiety. Raphe nucleus (pons, medulla, midbrain)

56

ACh change in disease? and location of synthesis?

Inc. in Parkinsons. Dec. in Alzheimers and HD. Basal nucleus of Meynert. "Need A/C during Mey?"

57

GABA change in disease? and location of synthesis?

Decreased in HD and anxiety. Nucleus accumbens.

58

Three major structures for BBB?

Tight junctions between NONfenestrated capillary endothelial cells, BM, astrocyte foot processes.

59

Carrier-mediated transport for BBB?

Glucose and amino acids.

60

Major areas of the hypothalamus

Lateral area, ventromedial area, anterior, posterior, suprachiasmatic, OVLT, area postrema, supraoptic nucleus (makes ADH), paraventricular nucleus