Flashcards in Neuro Deck (304)
Most vulnerable areas of the brain for hypoxia?
Hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, watershed.
Histologic features of ischemia in brain.
NOTHING from 3-6h. Red neurons 12-48 hrs. Necrosis + neutrophils from 24-72h. Macrophages from 3-5 days. Reactive gliosis + vascular proliferation from 1-2 weeks. >2 weeks is a glial scar.
Brief, reversible focal neurologic dysfunction lasting <24 hrs with NEG MRI findings of infarction.
Superior sagittal sinus vs. inferior saggital sinus
Superior on top. Inferior is inside off of the straight sinus as a branch (other being Great cerebral vein of Galen)
Phenytoin vs. phenobarbital SE's?
Generalized lymphadenopathy w/ hirsuitsm, coarsened features, gingival hyperplasia vs. acute intermittent porphyria, sedation
AD (Chromosome 17). Cafe-au-lait. Neurofibromas. Lisch nodules (hamartomas of iris). Pseudoarthrosis.
CN's in medulla
CN's in Pons
CN's above the Pons
Restless legs syndrome treatment
First nonpharm (limit aggravating factors), Fe supplement, Dopamine agonists (pramipexole, ropinirole)
Valproic acid pregnancy risk?
NEURAL tube defects. 1-3%
By what age should a child be able to play cooperatively?
By what age able to copy circle and use utensils?
By what age have friends?
Steps for hearing from TM
Stapes to TM -> oval window (amplification) -> fluid displacement of endolymph of scala media -> bending of cilia of hair cells (basilar vs. tectorial membranes) -> inc. OR dec. K+ conductance = dpol. or repol. -> dpol to Ca2+ release of repol to no Ca2 -< release of neurotransmitter or not -> CN VIII; Higher frequency closer to stapes (stiff) while lower frequency at compliant near apex.
Purpose of the foramina of Luschka and Magendie?
Connect 4th ventricle to the subarachnoid space. Luschka = Lateral. Magendie = Medial.
Expansion fo ventricles distorts fibers of the CORONA RADIATA -> urinary incontinence, ataxia, cognitive dysfunction
Decreased CSF absorption by arachnoid graduation lead to inc. ICP, papilledema, herniation
Hydrocephalus ex vacuo
Apparent increase of CSF 2/2 atrophy. ICP is normal. (e.g. Alzheimer's, adv. HIV, Pick)
Due to a structural blockage within the CSF system
How many spinal nerves are there?
31 spinal nerves. "Have the spine of a man walking outside on January 31st."
Which nerves exit above their corresponding vertebra?
To what vertebrae does the spinal cord extend to? And where do you do a LP?
Lower border of L1-L2. LP usu. between L3-L4 or L4-L5. Subarachnoid space down to S2.
Dorsal column body organization
Fasciculus gracilis (lower body and legs) are inside. Fasciculus ceunatus (upper body, and arms)
Anterolateral system body organization
Lateral spinothalamic tract. Sacral outside to cervical inside.
Corticospinal tract body organization
Sacral lateral. Cervical medial.
Anterolateral system pathway
Free nerve endings synapse in ipsilateral gray matter and decussates within 2-3 levels in anterior white commisure, ascending CONTRlaterally, synapsing at VPL -> sensory cortex
Dorsal column pathway
Fine touch, vibration, pressure, propioception enter spinal cord and ascend ipsilaterally until it synapses at the nucleus cuneatus (lateral) or gracilis (medial) -> decussates at the MEDULLA and ascends contralaterally up the medial lemniscus -> synapses at VPL -> sensory cortex
Spastic paralysis vs. flaccid paralysis
UMN vs. LMN signs