Flashcards in Neuro Deck (304)
CN V2 = Standing room only, but the spinster is meningeal.
V3. CN V = Standing Room Only, but the spinster is meningeal.
Middle meningeal artery
Internal auditory meatus
CN VII, VIII
CN IX, X, XI, jugular vein
What's in the cavernous sinus?
CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI, post-ganglionic sympathetics.
Cavernous sinus syndrome
Opathlmoplegia , decreased corneal and maxillary sensation with NORMAL VISUAL acuity. CN VI common.
Middle ear ossicles
Malleus, incus, stapes
Abnormal in conductive hearing loss (Bone > air) but normal in sensorineural (air > bone).
Localizes to affected ear in conductive hearing loss. Localizes to unaffected ear in sensorineural hearing loss.
Muscles of Mastication
Masseter, Temporalis, Medial pterygoid CLOSE. Only opener is lateral pterygoid. M's munch. Lateral lowers.
Inflamation of anterior urea and iris. Sterile pus, conjuctival redness. Associated with sarcoid, RA, JIA, TB, HLA-B27
Hyperopia vs. myopia vs. presbyopia?
Myopia = short-sighted b/c eye is too long (football!). Hyperopia = far-sighted b/c eye is too compressed. Presbyopia = decreased focusing ability during accommodation 2/2 sclerosis and decreased elasticity
Retinal edema and necrosis that can lead to a scar. Often viral and associated with immunosuppresion.
Central retinal artery occlusion
Acute, PAINless, monocular vision loss. Cloud retina and cherry-red spot at the fovea.
Retinal vein occlusion
Retinal hemorrhage and edema
Non-proliferative type is due to leakage of of blood, lipids, and fluid (tx w/ blood sugar control and macular laser). Proliferative type is due to angiogenesis b/c of chronic hypoxia (tx w/ peripheral retinal photocoagulation, anti-VEGF injections)
Aqueous humor pathway
Ciliary epithelium produces aqueous humor (Beta stimulation). Aqueous soln moves through posterior chamber in the space between the iris and the lens, then moves into the anterior chamber where it is collected via trabecular meshwork into the Canal of Schlemm.
Optic disc atrophy and progressive PERIPHERAL visual field loss associated w/ increased IOP
Open angle glaucoma
Associated with in creased age, AA, family. Painless. Primary - unknown. Secondary - blocked trabecular meshwork b/c of WBC's (uveitis), RBCs (vitreous hemorrhage), retinal elements (retinal detachment)
Closed/narrow angle glaucoma
Primary - enlargement or forward movt of lens against the central iris leads to OBSTRUCTION of aqueous flow. Fluid build-up behind iris also pushes peripheral iris against cornea to impede trabecular meshwork flow. Secondary - hypoxia from retinal disease induces a vasoproliferation in the iris that contracts the angle. Acute closure from increased IOP is PAINFUL, frontal headache. No Epi b/c mydriatic.
Painless often b/l opacification of the lesion. RF include age, smoking EtOH, excessive sunlight, cortico, classic galatosemia, galactokinase deficiency, DM, trauma, infection
How does miosis happen?
Edinger-Wetphal nucleus to ciliary ganglion piggy-backing CN III. After synapse, short ciliary nerves to pupillary sphincter
How does mydriasis happen?
From hypothalamus to ciliospinal center of Budge (C8-T2!). Exit T1 to superior cervical ganglion. Then move through plexus on internal carotid, through cavernous sinus, through long ciliary nerve to pupillary dilators
Pupillary light reflex
From retina to CN II to pretectal nuclei - activates b/l Edinger-Westphal -> miosis.
Marcus Gunn pupil
Afferent pupillary defect
Cranial nerve III anatomy
Is fed from outside in. Motor components INSIDE are vulnerable to DM. Parasympathetic output (outside) are vulnerable to compression (blown pupil)
lesion in MLF leads to lack of coordination between eyes.. CN III talking to opposite CN VI. So, when Left eye moves left and right eye does not, the R oculo III isn't syncing with L abducens, so it is the Right MLF that is NOT working. (III is priority) for a Right INO (refers to eye that is paralyzed)