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181

Foramen rotundum

CN V2 = Standing room only, but the spinster is meningeal.

182

Foramen ovale

V3. CN V = Standing Room Only, but the spinster is meningeal.

183

Foramen spinosum

Middle meningeal artery

184

Internal auditory meatus

CN VII, VIII

185

Jugular foramen

CN IX, X, XI, jugular vein

186

Hypoglossal canal

CN XII

187

What's in the cavernous sinus?

CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI, post-ganglionic sympathetics.

188

Cavernous sinus syndrome

Opathlmoplegia , decreased corneal and maxillary sensation with NORMAL VISUAL acuity. CN VI common.

189

Middle ear ossicles

Malleus, incus, stapes

190

Rinne test

Abnormal in conductive hearing loss (Bone > air) but normal in sensorineural (air > bone).

191

Weber test

Localizes to affected ear in conductive hearing loss. Localizes to unaffected ear in sensorineural hearing loss.

192

Muscles of Mastication

Masseter, Temporalis, Medial pterygoid CLOSE. Only opener is lateral pterygoid. M's munch. Lateral lowers.

193

Uveitis

Inflamation of anterior urea and iris. Sterile pus, conjuctival redness. Associated with sarcoid, RA, JIA, TB, HLA-B27

194

Hyperopia vs. myopia vs. presbyopia?

Myopia = short-sighted b/c eye is too long (football!). Hyperopia = far-sighted b/c eye is too compressed. Presbyopia = decreased focusing ability during accommodation 2/2 sclerosis and decreased elasticity

195

Retinitis

Retinal edema and necrosis that can lead to a scar. Often viral and associated with immunosuppresion.

196

Central retinal artery occlusion

Acute, PAINless, monocular vision loss. Cloud retina and cherry-red spot at the fovea.

197

Retinal vein occlusion

Retinal hemorrhage and edema

198

Diabetic retinopathy

Non-proliferative type is due to leakage of of blood, lipids, and fluid (tx w/ blood sugar control and macular laser). Proliferative type is due to angiogenesis b/c of chronic hypoxia (tx w/ peripheral retinal photocoagulation, anti-VEGF injections)

199

Aqueous humor pathway

Ciliary epithelium produces aqueous humor (Beta stimulation). Aqueous soln moves through posterior chamber in the space between the iris and the lens, then moves into the anterior chamber where it is collected via trabecular meshwork into the Canal of Schlemm.

200

Glaucoma

Optic disc atrophy and progressive PERIPHERAL visual field loss associated w/ increased IOP

201

Open angle glaucoma

Associated with in creased age, AA, family. Painless. Primary - unknown. Secondary - blocked trabecular meshwork b/c of WBC's (uveitis), RBCs (vitreous hemorrhage), retinal elements (retinal detachment)

202

Closed/narrow angle glaucoma

Primary - enlargement or forward movt of lens against the central iris leads to OBSTRUCTION of aqueous flow. Fluid build-up behind iris also pushes peripheral iris against cornea to impede trabecular meshwork flow. Secondary - hypoxia from retinal disease induces a vasoproliferation in the iris that contracts the angle. Acute closure from increased IOP is PAINFUL, frontal headache. No Epi b/c mydriatic.

203

Cataract

Painless often b/l opacification of the lesion. RF include age, smoking EtOH, excessive sunlight, cortico, classic galatosemia, galactokinase deficiency, DM, trauma, infection

204

How does miosis happen?

Edinger-Wetphal nucleus to ciliary ganglion piggy-backing CN III. After synapse, short ciliary nerves to pupillary sphincter

205

How does mydriasis happen?

From hypothalamus to ciliospinal center of Budge (C8-T2!). Exit T1 to superior cervical ganglion. Then move through plexus on internal carotid, through cavernous sinus, through long ciliary nerve to pupillary dilators

206

Pupillary light reflex

From retina to CN II to pretectal nuclei - activates b/l Edinger-Westphal -> miosis.

207

Marcus Gunn pupil

Afferent pupillary defect

208

Cranial nerve III anatomy

Is fed from outside in. Motor components INSIDE are vulnerable to DM. Parasympathetic output (outside) are vulnerable to compression (blown pupil)

209

Internuclear opthalmoplegia

lesion in MLF leads to lack of coordination between eyes.. CN III talking to opposite CN VI. So, when Left eye moves left and right eye does not, the R oculo III isn't syncing with L abducens, so it is the Right MLF that is NOT working. (III is priority) for a Right INO (refers to eye that is paralyzed)

210

Ciliary muscle, pupillary dilator, pupillary sphincter, ciliary epithelium innervation?

Cholinergic (parasympathetic) M3's for sphinter and ciliary muscle. Alpha-1 for dilator. Beta for ciliary epithelium