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Aikawa T et al vet Surg 2012
Recurrent TL IVD extrusion after hemilam and prophy fenestration

662 chondrodystrophic dogs
2.3% confirmed 2nd disc
26x's more likely at non fenest.
8 at neighbor site
6 at distal site


Roach WJ Residual herniated disc material following hemilaminectomy in chondrodystrophic dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2012;25(2):109–15

- 40 dogs with acute IVDD and CT scan immediately preop and postop
- ALL dogs had residual disc material (or hemorrhage – it was noncontrast CT after hemilaminectomy
- mean amount of disc (or hemorrhage) volume left behind = 50%
- mean amount of canal area taken by residual disk (or hemorrhage) at worst slice: 30%
- all dogs ambulatory at follow-up


Bergknut N, Egenvall A, Hagman R, Gustås P, Hazewinkel HAW, Meij BP, et al. Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration-related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012 Jun 1;240(11):1300–9

- 600,000 swedish dogs
- Most at risk for degenerative IVDD (anywhere in spine):
- Miniature Dachshund all time highest. Lifetime prevalence = 20%
- Standard Dachshund #2
- Doberman #3
- GSD was most at risk for lumbosacral IVDD (and Dobie for cervical IVDD)
- males > females
- overall fatality from the disease = 34%
- Dobies and GSDs: 63-65%
- Dachshunds: 25%


Aprea F, Cherubini GB, Palus V, Vettorato E, Corletto F. Effect of extradurally administered morphine on postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing surgery for thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012 Sep 15;241(6):754–9

Dogs benefited from intraoperative splash of PF morphine onto dura after hemilaminectomy


Hernia recurrence
1 according to Tobias
2 according to recent literature

1 ~20-40% most within 4 yrs. Opacified disks in non wiener dogs = 1.4x's risk per disk. So 5 or 6 disks = 50%
2 Aikawa 2.3%, Brisson 12.7% overall,


Muguet-Chanoit AC, Olby NJ, Lim JH, Gallagher R, Niman Z, Dillard S, et al. The Cutaneous Trunci Muscle Reflex: A Predictor of Recovery in Dogs with Acute Thoracolumbar Myelopathies Caused by Intervertebral Disc Extrusions. Vet Surg. 2012.

- paraplegic, no deep preop
- caudal movement of CT (n=19) by discharge = 9.6 x more likely to improve (but caudal movement of CT was not associated with long term success i.e. ambulatory long term)
- caudal movement of CT = 0% chance of myelomalacia
- cranial movement of CT (n=6) were 145x more likely to get myelomalacia


Bos AS, Brisson BA, Nykamp SG, Poma R, Foster RA. Accuracy, intermethod agreement, and inter-reviewer agreement for use of magnetic resonance imaging and myelography in small-breed dogs with naturally occurring first-time intervertebral disk extrusion. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012 Apr 15;240(8):969–77.

- MRI vs plain myelograms in chondrodystrophic IVDD – surgical gold standard
- MRI 100 % accurate for site and side
- myelography 91% accurate for site and 55% accurate for side


Whats the limit of CSF you can collect?

No more than 1ml/5kg


Where should you collect CSF and why?

From a site caudal to suspect lesion because it flow in a primarily rostrocaudal direction


What can cause xanthochromia?

It’s from blood pigment (like Hgb)
Suggests previous subarachnoid hemorrhage (in absence of hyperbilirubineria)
Severe central nervous sys inflammation


What is the genetic finding that suggests increased risk for degenerative myelopathy?

Homozygous for a missense mutation (G to A) in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene


Once steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis has been confirmed what blood test can you run in lieu of CSF taps to monitor therapy

C-reactive protein serum concentrations


Most common concurrent condition in dogs with discospondylitis?



Organisms most commonly associated with discospondylitis?

Staphylococcus, E.coli, Brucells, Strepotococcus, Kelbsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Actinomyces


Three cultures you should consider to help id the organism in discospondylitis

Blood and Urine - ~40% or better got answer in one study
Percutaneous FNA in humans ~60% got an answer


Where does an FCE come from

Generally accepted it comes from nucleus pulposus


How long should you give an FCE to improve before giving up?

At least 2 weeks
Recent study – voluntary by 6 days, unassisted ambulation by 11 days and max recovery by 3.75 months


Could MRI help with FCE prognosis? If so how?

Lesion to length ratio T2 wtd L2, C6
> 2 58% an unsuccessful outcome


What are the Pfirrmann grades:

Grading system for IVD on MRI (T2-wtd)
1:homogenous and white, clear distinction, normal space size
2: nonhomogenous, clear distinction, normal space size
3: nonhomogenous and grey, indistinct, normal size
4: nonhomogenous and grey to black, no distinction, normal to decreased size
5: nonhomogenous, black, no distinction, collapsed disc space


Witsberger TH, et al. Associations between cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and long-term neurologic outcome in dogs with acute intervertebral disk herniation. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012 Mar 1;240(5):555–62

- CSF, from cerebromedullary cistern only
Affected dogs
- if CSF CK =/38
- if CSF MBP =/


Describe the Modified Frankel score

Grade 5 paraspinal hyperesthesia only
4 ambulatory paraparesis and ataxia
3 non-ambulatory paraparesis
2 paraplegic with intact nociception
1 paraplegic with no supf nociception
0 paraplegic with no deep nociception


According to Tobias what prognosis for TL type I IVDD?

Deep pain positive
-ambulatory and only painful = 24/25 improved
-w out motor = 86-96% walking in ~3months
Deep pain NEGATIVE
- return to amublation in 43-62%
- probably low end or worse if went DP neg in less than 1 hour
-mean time to walking ~7.5 weeks, more likley to have intermittent fecal incontinence (~40%, 11% severe) and mild urinary incontinence (32%) from Olby study


According to Tobias aside from nociception what are other prognostic indicators

spinal cord swelling on myelogram and T2-weighted hyper intensity on MRI greater then 5x's the length of L2 are negative indicators



-Alph-adrenergic antagonist used to decrease urethral tone
-Slow therapeutic onset (may take days)
-May cause hypotension (attenuates catecholamine induced vasoconstriction via alpha 1 block)
-Less alpha 1 specific than prazosin so more likely to get tachycardia (presynaptic alpha-2 blockade of cardiac sympathetic nerves)



-Alph-adrenergic antagonist used to decrease urethral tone
-More rapid onset than phenoxybenzamine
-May cause hypotension (attenuates catecholamine induced vasoconstriction via alpha 1 block)
-Tachycardia unlikley



Cholinergic muscarinic agonist (parasympathomimetic)
Increases detrusor muscle tone
Side effects - SLUD


Funkquist A

-A dorsal laminectomy procedure
-zygapophyseal joints (articular facets) and pedicles are removed along with dorsal spinous process and dorsal lamina
-Maximum exposure of the spinal canal


Funkquist B

Leave the articular processes (zygaphophyseal joint)


Modified dorsal

Caudal zygapophyseal joint removed, preserving the cranial, but the pedicle is undercut when doing the dorsal laminectomy


With respect to the spinal cord and the dorsal longitudinal ligament - where does the intercapital ligament lie?
What vertebrae does the intercapital ligament reside

It lies dorsal to the spinal cord and ventral to the dorsal longitudinal ligament from T2-T11