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Flashcards in Elbows Deck (72)
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Cuddy LC, Lewis DD, Kim SE, Conrad BP, Banks SA, Horodyski M, et al. Contact mechanics and three-dimensional alignment of normal dog elbows. Vet Surg. 2012 Oct;41(7):818–28.

- pronation increases peak contact pressure in medial compartment and shifts peak point towards apex
- in pronation and supination, radial head rotates more than ulna


Stein S, Schmoekel HG, Waibl H, Brunnberg L. Computerized measurements of radiographic anatomical parameters of the elbow joint in Bernese Mountain Dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2012 May 15;25(3):250–61.

- the Viehmann method of measuring things is less influenced by joint angle than the Muer method
- except for radio-ulnar step – that should be measured at a constant angle


Streubel R, Geyer H, Montavon PM. Medial humeral epicondylitis in cats. Vet Surg. 2012 Oct;41(7):795–802.

- 60 feline cadavers
- 10% prevalence of medial humeral epicondylar irregularity
- always flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, in severe cases there was compression of the ulnar nerve
remember supinator sesamoid in cats


de Bakker E, Saunders J, Gielen I, van Bree H, Coppieters E, van Ryssen B. Radiographic findings of the medial humeral epicondyle in 200 canine elbow joints. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2012 Sep 13;25(5):359–65.

- 40 % had radiographic epicondylar changes
- 85% of these had other elbow diseases
- 15% of these had no other elbow changes (6% of total population) “primary flexor enthesopathy)
- you need both views (mediolateral and 15CC oblique) to catch all the epicondylar changes
- types of epicondylar change:
- spur alone (most common type noted with other elbow diseases)
- free calcified body alone ( only seen in dogs with other elbow diseases)
- spur + free body (most common pattern in dogs with 1 flexor enthesopathy
- irregular medial epicondyle


van Ryssen B, de Bakker E, Beaumlin Y, Samoy YCA, Van Vynckt D, Gielen I, et al. Primary flexor enthesopathy of the canine elbow: imaging and arthroscopic findings in eight dogs with discrete radiographic changes. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2012 May 15;25(3):239–45.

- 8 dogs (13 elbows), all >=2 years, gradual or acute lameness
- firm swelling in all cases, pain w/pressure not reliable finding
- spur (11) or radiolucency (2)
- ultrasound: “outward bowing” & fluid. CT: sclerotic epidondyle, periosteal rxn. MRI: swelling & hyperint
- visibly ruptured fibers on arthroscopy
- treatment: 1 dog steroids, other dogs surgical transection, all improved


Paster ER, Biery DN, Lawler DF, Evans RH, Kealy RD, Gregor TP, et al. Un-united medial epicondyle of the humerus: radiographic prevalence and association with elbow osteoarthritis in a cohort of labrador retrievers. Vet Surg. 2009 Feb 1;38(2):169–72.

- Purina study dogs
- 15% had “UME” (7 dogs), (6 unilateral – 12.5%) (1 bilateral – 2%)
- no correlation w/whether or not elbow had OA, most cases unilateral, diet didn’t affect
- best to see on craniocaudal view


Chanoit G, Singhani NN, Marcellin-Little DJ, Osborne JA. Comparison of five radiographic views for assessment of the medial aspect of the humeral condyle in dogs with osteochondritis dissecans. Am J Vet Res. 2010 Jul;71(7):780–3.

- the 15 craniolateral-caudomedial oblique is the best
- the regular craniocaudal view is the next best
- the 35 distomedial-proximolateral oblique (used for MCP) doesn’t work for OCD


Fitzpatrick N, Yeadon R, Smith TJ. Early clinical experience with osteochondral autograft transfer for treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the medial humeral condyle in dogs. Vet Surg. 2009 Feb 1;38(2):246–60.

- PLIT “plateau intersect of condyle & trochlea” OATS donor site
- 30 of 33 elbows with OCD also had medial coronoid disease
- OATS worked
- in dogs w/ concurrent coronoid disease, dogs w/ ulnar ostectomy + SCO did better than w/SCO only
- 12-18 week follow-up


Samoy Y, Gielen I, Van Caelenberg A, van Bree H, Duchateau L, Van Ryssen B. Computed tomography findings in 32 joints affected with severe elbow incongruity and fragmented medial coronoid process. Vet Surg. 2012 May;41(4):486–94.

- same groups as in study below
- CT findings unique to dogs with severe obvious RU incongruence:
- the incongruence is visible
- pseudocyst at R-U transition
- “fragmentation of the axial border of the medial coronoid incisure”


Samoy Y, Van Vynckt D, Gielen I, van Bree H, Duchateau L, Van Ryssen B. Arthroscopic Findings in 32 Joints Affected by Severe Elbow Incongruity with Concomitant Fragmented Medial Coronoid Process. Vet Surg. 2012

- group 1: normal dogs. G2: FCP but no obvious radiographic incongruity. G3: >=3mm RU step on rads
- arthroscopic findings that were specific for dogs with obvious RU incongruity:
- radioulnar step, increased radiohumeral joint space
- “fleece blanket” on radial head
- irregular cartilage at “zona nudata uncisurae”
- more likely to have radioulnar transition be irregular
- also: all the severely incongruent elbows had FCP
- also: radial incisures fragments were mostly in the not-obviously incongruent elbows


Burton NJ, Owen MR, Kirk LS, Toscano MJ, Colborne GR. Conservative versus arthroscopic management for medial coronoid process disease in dogs: a prospective gait evaluation. Vet Surg. 2011 Dec;40(8):972–80.

- inverse dynamics analysis
- dogs with really mild MCPD (the arthroscopy group had no kissing lesions)
- arthroscopy group worse at 4 and 8 weeks
- groups equivalent at 1 year
- both groups gradually improved


Burton NJ, Perry MJ, Fitzpatrick N, Owen MR. Comparison of bone mineral density in medial coronoid processes of dogs with and without medial coronoid process fragmentation. Am J Vet Res. 2010 Jan 1;71(1):41–6.

- DXA on subtotal coronoidectomy MCP’s and normal Greyhound CPs
- FCPs had lower bone mineral density than normal CPs!
- all CP’s had less bone mineral density at axial edge and more at abaxial edge!


Prink A, Hayashi K, Kim S-Y, Kim J, Kapatkin A. Evaluation of a collagenase generated osteoarthritis biomarker in the synovial fluid from elbow joints of dogs with medial coronoid disease and unaffected dogs. Vet Surg. 2010 Jan;39(1):65–70.

- “C2C” is Col2-3/4Clong mono -> a collagenase-generated cleavage neoepitope of type II collagen
- C2C (CIIC) is higher in synovial fluid of elbows with MCD (coronoid dz) than in normal elbows
- and the C2C levels (joint fluid) correlated moderately with degree of cartilage damage


Vermote KAG, Bergenhuyzen ALR, Gielen I, van Bree H, Duchateau L, van Ryssen B. Elbow lameness in dogs of six years and older: arthroscopic and imaging findings of medial coronoid disease in 51 dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2010;23(1):43–50.

- distribution of arthroscopic findings in young vs old dogs differs
- finding old dogs > 6 yrs young dogs 5-18 months
malacia only 2% 0%
fissures 27.5 % 23%
nondisplaced fragments 12% 45%
displaced fragments 0% 29%
erosions, no fragments 31% 3%


Cachon T, Genevois JP, Remy D, Carozzo C, Viguier E, Maitre P, et al. Risk of simultaneous phenotypic expression of hip and elbow dysplasia in dogs: a study of 1,411 radiographic examinations sent for official scoring. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2010;23(1):28–30.

- radiographic study – 4 major French breeds with rads sent for hip & elbow screening
- risk ratio for dog to have both = 1.67
- for a dog with ED, the risk of having HD increases as ED gets worse, and visa versa
- the low (positive) correlation is not enough so that beeding out one will affect the other


Spahni AI, Schawalder P, Rothen B, Bosshardt DD, Lang N, Stoffel MH. Immunohistochemical localization of RANK, RANKL and OPG in healthy and arthritic canine elbow joints. Vet Surg. 2009 Aug 1;38(6):780–6.

- IHC on fragmented coronoids and normal coronoids
- in ED samples, RANK/RANKL was over represented and OPG was underrepresented,
- suggests inbalance btwn osteoclastic & osteoblastic activity


Seyrek-Intas D, Michele U, Tacke S, Kramer M, Gerwing M. Accuracy of ultrasonography in detecting fragmentation of the medial coronoid process in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Feb 15;234(4):480–5.

- Kappa coefficient indicated no agreement btwn ultrasound and surgical findings
- accuracy for evidence of any MCP dz was 77%


Canapp S, Acciani D, Hulse D, Schulz K, Canapp D. Rehabilitation therapy for elbow disorders in dogs. Vet Surg. 2009 Feb 1;38(2):301–7.

- rehabilitation phases after elbow injury or surgery:
- Phase I – immediate motion phase (weeks 1-3) (ROM, massage, cryo, laser, TENS, U/S)
- Phase II – intermediate phase (weeks 4-6) (hydrotherapy, walking, cavaletti)
- Phase III – advanced strengthening phase (weeks 7-11) (therabands, steep hill, stairs, plyometric drills)
- Phase IV – return to activity phase (weeks 12 +)


Fitzpatrick N, Yeadon R. Working algorithm for treatment decision making for developmental disease of the medial compartment of the elbow in dogs. Vet Surg. 2009 Feb 1;38(2):285–300.

- Fitzpatrick uses “MCD” to mean medial coronoid dz rather than compartment dz
- “HUC” = humeroulnar conflict
- causes of incongruency
- static RU incongruence
- dynamic RU length congruence
- shape of ulnar notch
- rotational instability (radius & ulna get jammed into trochlea)
- mismatch of contour arch
- musculotendinous mismatch
- microcracks extend beyond the visible dz
- SCO approach btwn pronator/F.C.R. and the superficial/deep dig flex, it’s caudal to the MCL


Fitzpatrick N, Smith TJ, Evans RB, O'Riordan J, Yeadon R. Subtotal coronoid ostectomy for treatment of medial coronoid disease in 263 dogs. Vet Surg. 2009 Feb 1;38(2):233–45.

- SCO through mini arthrotomy (extension of arthroscope portal incision) in 263 dogs
- most improved especially in long term with minimul perioperative morbidity
- radiographic OA scores went up by 1 grade
- osteotomy starts 1-2mm distal to point where sagittal ridge meets incisure


Fitzpatrick N, Smith TJ, Evans RB, Yeadon R. Radiographic and arthroscopic findings in the elbow joints of 263 dogs with medial coronoid disease. Vet Surg. 2009 Feb;38(2):213–23.

- 3% of rads looked normal
- only weak correlation between radiographic & arthroscopic & duration of lameness
- 49% of these dogs with MCD had kissing lesions
- 87% subtrochlear sclerosis
- 70% anconeal process osteophyes
- 57% lateral epicondyle osteophytes
- 37% radial head osteophytes


Smith TJ, Fitzpatrick N, Evans RB, Pead MJ. Measurement of ulnar subtrochlear sclerosis using a percentage scale in labrador retrievers with minimal radiographic signs of periarticular osteophytosis. Vet Surg. 2009 Feb 1;38(2):199–208.

- method for quantifying subtrochlear sclerosis investigated
- dogs without other radiographic signs of OA only
- median STS (control) = 0%; median STS (diseased) = 47%
- pretty repeatable – might be useful in further studies


Punke JP, Hulse DA, Kerwin SC, Peycke LE, Budsberg SC. Arthroscopic documentation of elbow cartilage pathology in dogs with clinical lameness without changes on standard radiographic projections. Vet Surg. 2009 Feb 1;38(2):209–12.

- 16 dogs with normal radiographs (dz caught by CT or scintigraphy)
- all had fragmented CP’s, 2 had humeral OCD
- conclusion: ED can happen with normal rads and if so it’s probably FCP


Huck JL, Biery DN, Lawler DF, Gregor TP, Runge JJ, Evans RH, et al. A longitudinal study of the influence of lifetime food restriction on development of osteoarthritis in the canine elbow. Vet Surg. 2009 Feb;38(2):192

- Purina dogs
- none of them had FCP, UAP, or OCD
- both groups had same numbers of dogs with radiographic OA
- radiographically more severe in control fed group at 6 years old but not 8 years old
- at death, no difference in gross or histo findings between groups
- because the diet-restricted group lived 1.8 yrs longer and they had the same degree of elbow OA at death, the authors say this supports calorie restriction


Draffan D, Carrera I, Carmichael S, Heller J, Hammond G. Radiographic analysis of trochlear notch sclerosis in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis secondary to medial coronoid disease. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2009 Jan 1;22(1):7–15.

- another method to quantitate trochlear notch sclerosis (TNS in this study)
– A/B. measured at craniodistal edge of humerus
- I don’t understand why their TNS ratio is in mm
- using a TNS ratio of


Hadley HS, Wheeler JL, Manley PA. Traumatic fragmented medial coronoid process in a Chihuahua. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2009 Jan 1;22(4):328–31.

- 14 month old Chihuahua, CT showed fragment and elbow incongruity
- improved with SCO and ulnar ostectomy
- histo of the fragment did not show little microfractures


Moores AP, Benigni L, Lamb CR. Computed tomography versus arthroscopy for detection of canine elbow dysplasia lesions. Vet Surg. 2008 Jun 1;37(4):390–8.

- CT can catch stuff that arthroscopy misses and visa versa – therefore they are complementary


Evans RB, Gordon-Evans WJ, Conzemius MG. Comparison of three methods for the management of fragmented medial coronoid process in the dog. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2008 Jan 1;21(2):106–9.

- arthroscopy is superior to arthrotomy and medical management for FCP, based on the data at the time
- medial arthrotomy is not superior to medical management


Evans RB, Gordon-Evans WJ, Conzemius MG. Comparison of three methods for the management of fragmented medial coronoid process in the dog. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2008 Jan 1;21(2):106–9.

- arthroscopy is superior to arthrotomy and medical management for FCP, based on the data at the time
- medial arthrotomy is not superior to medical management


Burton NJ, Dobney JA, Owen MR, Colborne GR. Joint angle, moment and power compensations in dogs with fragmented medial coronoid process. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2008 Jan 1;21(2):110–8.

- 7 dogs with FCP and inverse dynamic analysis
- FCP side compared with contralateral side (no normals)
- “In conclusion, joint angular excursions, moments and powers were all diminished in the affected forelimb, but their overall patterns were largely conserved”
- especially in propulsive phase of stance