Urogenital/from compendium urolith paper except 1st 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urogenital/from compendium urolith paper except 1st 3 Deck (26):
1

Ho:YAG laser uses an active-medium crystal made of ____,_____,&_____ (YAG) mixed with _________ (chromium and thulium).

yttrium, aluminum, and garnet;
Holmium

2

The Ho:YAG laser emits light at an infrared wavelength of ______nm.

2100 nm

3

Fragmentation by a thermal drilling process-- the pulse of energy traveling through the fiber creates a microscopic _____ _______ on the surface of the calculus.

Vapor bubble

4

This microscopic “parting” of the fluid medium by an air bubble (known as the _______ effect). There is a ______ ______ that causes fragmentation

Moses; shock wave

5

If the fiber tip is __ mm or more away from the stone, the vapor
bubble collapses, the water or saline absorbs the energy, and no energy is transmitted to the urolith

1 mm

6

EHL: an ______ _______ is generated in a fluid medium, creating a cavitation bubble that generates a hydraulic shock wave.

Electric spark

7

EHL: The hydraulic shock wave disrupts the crystal lattice structure of the urolith via _________ forces.

Shearing

8

Complete urolith removal is typically achieved in ___% of dogs with urethroliths, __% to ___ % of female dogs with cystoliths, and __% to __% of male dogs with cystoliths

100-urethra
83 to 96- bladder female
68 to 81- bladder male
"In the literature"-overall

9

Basket retrieval can be considered in female dogs with stones < __mm, male dogs with stones < __mm, and female cats with stones < __mm

5,4,3

10

For Lap-assisted cystotomy, Rawlings Compendium 2009 recommended retracting a portion of ____ to suture over the bladder incision w/ the traction sutures.

Omentum

11

To date, the recommended laser for intracorporeal lithotripsy is the __________ laser.

Ho:YAG laser

12

Two types of intracorporeal lithotripsy have been described in veterinary patients?

1- Laser lithotripsy and 2- EHL
(Electrohydraulic lithotripsy)

13

Grant javma 2010: ___ % calculi remained in the bladder after cystotomy in dogs?

20

13

Appel javma 2008 study reported that ___% of recurrent stones in dogs were suture induced .

9.4%

13

complications w/cystotomy, regardless of closure method, were reported in ___% to ___% of cases, with a mean duration of hosp. of __ days. -Thieman javma 2012

37-50%... Really?! Thieman!
4 days hospitalization

13

List 6 minimally invasive procedures for treatment of uroliths of lower urinary tract

voiding urohydropropulsion (VUH), intracorporeal lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL), cystoscopic stone basket retrieval, percutaneous cysto- lithotomy (PCCL), and laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy

14

Adams javma 2008: Laser lithotripsy for stones in 73 dogs: Complete fragmentation of all uroliths in___% of females and ___% of males

100% females, 86.7% males

15

Grant JVIM 2008: 25 dogs/ laser lithotripsy for bladder and/or urethral stones. ___% were considered stone free post lith.

80%

16

Adams et al;complication rate/laser lithotripsy was ___% in female dogs and ____% in male dogs. (lower than those reported for cystotomy (37% to 50%) ugh! Thieman!

In the Adams et al study, the complication rate reported with laser lithotripsy was 17.9% in female dogs and 13.3% in male dogs.

17

Bevan -javma 2009: compared laser lith to cystotomy; conclusion regarding complication rate

NSD

18

Bevan javma 2009: conclusion regarding complete urolith removal rate between groups (laser lith vs cystotomy)?

NSD between dogs in the cystotomy group (86%) and
those in the lithotripsy group (89%)

19

Adams javma 2008:..of 73 dogs with uroliths treated by laser lithotripsy, ___% had stone recurrence after approximately 12 to 24 months of follow-up

19.1%

20

Defarges JVIM 2008: prospective clinical study of 28 dogs undergoing EHL: was most effective in female dogs with _____ stones and male dogs with ______ stones.

Bladder-female
Urethra- male

21

Defarges jvim 2008: ____ in dogs appeared to be as safe as laser lithotripsy and was associated with no major complications.

EHL

22

Defarges: did EHL of urethral stones cause stranguria?

No!

23

Runge javma 2011: PCCL in 27 dogs and cats:excellent complete stone removal rates (__%) shorter procedure times (total procedure time: __ to __ min)

96%
40-75 min