Flashcards in Neuropsych Deck (177)
What are the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors?
Block reuptake of NE
First non stimulant okd for ADHD in 6 year old plus
Side effects: decrease appetite
May increase suicidal thoughts/ax in children and adults.
What are the beta blockers? What do they do and what are their side effects?
Inhibit sympathetic nervous system
Slows heart rate and bld pressure
Traditionally used: hypertension
Physical sx of anxiety (not worry,..)
Side effects: bradycardia
Fatigue, nausea, dizzy
Abrupt withdrawal avoided...arrhythmia etc
What are the anti alcohol drugs? How do they work and what are their side effects?
Tx alcohol ABUSE and dependence
Disulfiram (Antabuse)..inhibits alcohol metabolism causes development of nausea and vomiting, short breath, tychardia
Naltrexone (reVia, vivitrol)...opiod receptor antagonist and reduces pleasure able effects and craving for alcohol.
What are cognitive enhances and what are they used for?
Slow down memory loss and cognitive sx of Alzheimer's.
Cholinesterase inhibitors that inhibit the breakdown of acetylcholine
Tacrine Hydrochloride/cognac no longer used due to liver problems.
Donepezil hydrochloride/aricept..approved mild, moderate, severe
Rivastigmine/exelon and galant amine/razadyne...mild and moderate
Side effects: nausea, diarrhea, wt loss stomach prob
What makes up the basal ganglia and what does it do?
Control of voluntary movement motor/outward expression of emotion
Abnormalities linked to:
What is ataxia?
Slurred speech, severe tremors, loss of balance.
Occurs when damage to cerebellum
Side effect of many meds
Name NT and what involved in:
Acetylcholine: voluntary movement
Learning and memory. Sex and sleep. Alzheimer's and normal memory loss.
Dopamine: mood, movement, learning, reinforcing effects of stimulants, nicotine, and opiates.
Depression, schizophrenia, Tourette's, ADHD, Parkinson's, Huntington's
Serotonin..anxiety, mood, memory, aggression, pain, sleep, appetite, sex (pass mama)
Too little...OCD, PTSD, depression, aggression, and bulimia.
Too much...schizophrenia, autism, anorexia (appetite)
GABA...inhibitory...abnormal levels impact anxiety, motor.
Disorders of sleep, eat, anxiety, and seizures. Parkinson's and Huntington's.
Anti anxiety drugs increase GABA.
Learning and memory
Long term potentiation..form memories.
Abnormal levels..anxiety, mood, schizophrenia
Over activity..seizures, stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, Parkinson's.
What do wernicke's, brocas and conduction aphasia have in common?
2. Impaired verbal prosody
3. Impaired comprehension
4. Impaired repetition of verbal tasks
Pt has OCD, multiple motor and one vocal tic. Neurological basis for pts problem is in the:
1. Temporal lobes
3. Prefrontal cortex
4. Basal ganglia
Circadian clock is located in the hypothalamus and is responsible for sleep-wake patterns. Circadian clock is the:
1. Pineal gland
2. Suprachiasmic nucleus
3. Substantia nigra
4. Reticular activating system
2. This signals the pineal gland which is also in the hypothalamus to produce melatonin which causes temp to drop and sleepiness.
RAS filters incoming sensory info and can activate a person to a state of alert wakefulness. Consists of cells in the medulla, pons, hypothalamus, and thalamus.
Thalamus is best described as
1. Master endocrine gland
2. Seat of cs
3. Relay station for all but olfaction
4. House of somatosensory cortex
What is the master endocrine gland?
Hypothalamus (along with the pituitary)
Temp regulation, sleep-wake cycle, general arousal, movement
What functions are critical to:
Frontal lobes...personality, emotionality, inhibition, planning and initiative, abstract thinking, judgement, higher mental fx
Brain stem..pons, meduLla, RAS
Memory and emotion
Parkinson's due to loss of cells in:
Basal ganglia is made up of sub nigra and caudate nucleus which is best answer as well as low in dopamine.
Nt involved in voluntary movement
SE..mood do, sleep onset, sex, aggression
GABA..anxiety, epilepsy, schizophrenia
Damage to the temporal lobe is likely to effect which type of memory function?
Short term explicit memory
Long term explicit memory
Short term implicit memory
Long term implicit memory
2. Generally long term memories that are explicit...cs recollection of facts and autobiographical events.
Damage..can remember for short of of time but can't hold onto info or consolidate it.
Left damage results in impaired memory for verbal material
Right impaired recall of nonverbal such as music and drawings
Right hemisphere plays an important role in:
Right...perceptual, visuospatiial, artistic, musical, intuitive
Left...language, rational, analytical, logical, abstract
Describe the divisions of the central and peripheral nervous system.
CNS contains has brain (forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain) and spinal cord (31 segments w 5 grps: cervical (quad); thoracic (paraplegia), lumbar, sacral, coccygeal.
PNS has somatic and ANS.
Somatic regulated sensory and voluntary motor activity by relaying it from sensory to CNS and from CNS to skeletal muscles.
ANS regulates involuntary. Has sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system (body relax, conserve energy, controls daily processes)
What is the neuron made of?
Nerve cell that is the info processing unit of nervous system.
Cell body..nucleus, mitochondria, and special structures for protein synthesis.
Dendrites respond to stimuli from other neurons and take info to cell body.
Axon...carrys info away from cell body. Terminal button at end of ea branch.
FYI..conduction, electrochemical process info received and processed in a nerve. Before signal, at rest (inside cell negatively charged, outside positively charged). When enough stimulation, less neg on inside Nd it becomes depolarized. This causes an action potential. Speed determined by larger axon diameter and thicker myelin greater speed.
What stops synaptic transmission?
Reuptake...terminal buttons take excess nerurotransmitter and store it for later
Enzymatic degradation..enzymes around synapse break down nt that is removed via waste.
Dc the three hormones in the endocrine system and related diseases.
Thyroid gland releases thyroxin which controls metabolism. Under secretion is hypothyroidism and over is hyperthyroidism or Graves' disease (speed metabolism, increase appetite, wt loss, accelerated he, nervous, heat intolerance, insomnia, decreased attn span)
Pancreas secretes insulin.
Undersecretion causes diabetes mellitus.
Over secretion causes hypoglycemia (hunger, weak, headache, visual prob, palpitations, anxiety, depression, confusion)
Cortisol by adrenal cortex regulates bld glucose.
Undersecretion is Addison's disease (muscle weakness, fatigue,
Low bp, decrease appetite, irritable, darkening of skin, depression).
Over secretion cause cushings disease (obesity, hypertension, poor concentration/memory, decrease libido..).
Paper circuit was originally identified as a neural pathway in:
Fight or flight
Experience and expression of emotion
Onset of puberty
Coordination of movement in rt and left sides of the body
B. said expression of emotion due to hypothalamus
Experience of emotion result of intx of hypothalamus and other structures.
Later found more related to memory.
What are the three structures involved in the physical expression of emotion? What is the fx of each.
Hypothalamus...physical expression of emotion thru effects on ANS and pituitary.
Amygdala attaches emotional content to memory, ESP fear and anxiety..mediating defensive/aggressive behaviors and recognizing fear in facial expressions
Left side..positive emotion
Lesion means catastrophic rx w severe depression, anxiety, fear
Right side..negative emotion
Lesions mean indifference rx w apathy and sometimes inappropriate euphoria.
What impact does REM deprivation have?
Like from barbiturate use, drug use
Alters sleep patterns
Increase anxiety, irritability
Impair cognitive functioning
Effects disappear when sleep
Rem rebound...more time in rem on subsequent nights
Research on RNA suggests it plays a role in:
Protein synthesis and long term potentiation are the neural mechanisms linked to the formation
What are the causes of color blindness?
Often genetic defect..x chromosome...males more likely
Disease impacts retina, optic nerve,..
Most common type distinguish red from green.