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Flashcards in New Words 10 Deck (32):


/streɪt/ noun [C]

1) also straits [plural] a narrow passage of water between two areas of land, usually connecting two seas
➡ the Bering Strait

2) ⛥ be in dire straits 
to be in a very difficult situation, especially a financial one
➡ After the war, the country’s economy was in dire straits.
➡ The firm is now in dire financial straits.


because of something

on account of something

➡ She can’t work too many hours on account of the children.



/ˌekspəˈnenʆl◂/ adjective (technical)

exponential growth/increase etc exponential growth, increase etc becomes faster as the amount of the thing that is growing increases

➡ an exponential increase in travel



/ˈpærəmaʊnt/ adjective (formal)

more important than anything else

➡ During a war the interests of the state are paramount, and those of the individual come last.
➡ Women’s role as mothers is of paramount importance to society.



/pəˈsiːv $ pər-/verb [T not in progressive]

1) (written) to understand or think of something or someone in a particular way 
⛥perceive something/somebody as something
➡Even as a young woman she had been perceived as a future chief executive.perceive something/somebody to be something
➡Often what is perceived to be aggression is simply fear.
➡Children who do badly in school tests often perceive themselves to be failures.

2) (formal) to notice, see, or recognize something 
➡That morning, he perceived a change in Franca’s mood.
➡Cats are not able to perceive colour.perceive that
➡He perceived that there was no other way out of the crisis.


fall silent

to stop talking or making a noise

➡ ‘I’ve said enough’ he mumbled, and fell silent.



AC /ɪnˈdjuːs $ ɪnˈduːs/verb [T]

1) (formal) to persuade someone to do something, especially something that does not seem wise
⛥ induce somebody to do something
➡Nothing would induce me to vote for him again.

3) (formal) to cause a particular physical condition
➡Patients with eating disorders may use drugs to induce vomiting.
⛥drug-induced/stress-induced etc
➡ a drug-induced coma



/ˈfɔːmətɪv $ ˈfɔːr-/adjective [only before noun]
having an important influence on the way someone or something develops

⛥formative years/period/stages etc(=the period when someone’s character develops)
➡He exposed his children to music throughout their formative years.

⛥ formative influence/effect etc
➡International politics were a formative influence on the party.



/ˌeɪpəˈlɪtɪkl◂/ adjective

not interested in politics, or not connected with any political party

➡ a group of apolitical young professional people
➡ an apolitical organization



/ˌʌndəˈfed $ -ər-/adjective

not given enough food to eat
🔺 OPP overfed


Not given enough food to eat OPP overfed

/ˌʌndəˈfed $ -ər-/adjective



also denationalise (BrE) /diːˈnæʆnəlaɪz/ verb [T]

to sell a business or industry that is owned by the state, so that it is then owned privately 
🔺 SYN privatize 
🔺 OPP nationalize

— denationalization /diːˌnæʆnəlaɪˈzeɪʆn $ -lə-/noun [U]

to change an industry from being publicly owned to being privately owned


by all means

by no means

C2 used to give permission:

"May I borrow this book?" "By all means."


also not by any means

C1 not at all:

It is by no means certain that we'll finishthe project by June.

This isn't the last we'll hear of it by any means.



AC /rɪˈzaɪd/ verb [I always + adv/prep]

1) (formal) to live in a particular place
➡He spent most of his time in Rutherglen, where his family resided.

⛥ reside in something/somebody

phrasal verb (formal)

1) to be present in or consist of something
➡ Joe’s talent resides in his storytelling abilities



/ˈaʊtlaɪn/ noun

1) [C,U] the main ideas or facts about something, without the details
➡a research proposal outlineoutline of
➡an outline of world historybroad/rough/general outline
➡a broad outline of the committee’s plansin outlineA debt reduction scheme was agreed in outline (=people agreed on its main points) .


verb [T]

1) to describe something in a general way, giving the main points but not the details
➡The new president outlined plans to deal with crime, drugs, and education.



/aʊtˈlɪv/ verb [T]

1) to remain alive after someone else has died
➡ She outlived her husband by 20 years.

⛥ to outlive sb
بیش از کسی زیستن
به حیات ادامه دادن پس از کسی

2) to continue to exist after something else has ended or disappeared 
➡ Good books have a way of outliving those who want to ban them.



/rɪˈmiːdiəl/ adjective

🔊 1) ⛥ remedial course/class/teacher etc

 a special course etc that helps students who have difficulty learning something

2) intended to improve something that is wrong
➡ Some remedial work needs to be done on the foundations.

3) intended to cure a problem with someone’s health
➡ remedial mental health therapies

Remedy = solution


/rɪˈmiːdiəbl/ adjective (formal)

able to be corrected or cured

➡ remediable problems


be about to

If you are about to do something, you are going to do it very soon. If something is about to happen, it will happen very soon.
➡ I think he's about to leave.
➡ Argentina has lifted all restrictions on trade and visas are about to be abolished.
➡ The film was about to start.




⛥ play/have a role 
➡ He played a prominent role in the company’s success.

⛥take on a role 
⚌also assume a role formal(=start having it) 
➡ Mr Jones took on the role of spokesperson for the organization.
⛥ take a role 
➡ Britain began to take a more active role in the affairs of Europe.

⛥ give somebody a role



کار شود



If you talk about the ubiquity of something, you mean that it seems to be everywhere.

UK ​ /juːˈbɪk.wə.ti/ US​ /juːˈbɪk.wə.t̬i/ formal

the fact that something or someone seems to beeverywhere:

➡ the ubiquity of fast-food outlets


/juːˈbɪkwtəs/ adjective (formal)

seeming to be everywhere – sometimes used humorously

➡ Coffee shops are ubiquitous these days.
➡ a French film, starring the ubiquitous Gérard Depardieu— ubiquitously adverb— ubiquity noun [U]



noun [C]

1) a big jump
🔺 SYN bound
➡ He threw a stick into the river and the dog went after it in a flying leap.

2) a large increase or change
⛥quantum/great/huge etc leap

➡ a quantum leap (=very great increase or change) in population levels
⛥leap in
➡a 16% leap in pre-tax profits
⛥leap forward
➡the huge leap forward that took place in the 1980s



/dɪˈmɑːndɪŋ $ dɪˈmæn-/adjective

1) needing a lot of ability, effort, or skill
➡ a demanding job

⛥physically/emotionally/intellectually etc demanding
➡ Climbing is physically demanding.



( noun )

the former (formal)

the first of two people or things that you have just mentioned
OPP the latter :

>>> Of the two possibilities, the former seems more likely.
>>> the black widow and the brown recluse. The former is found throughout the lower 48 states.


to be in an extremely difficult or serious situation

2 be in dire straits
>>> Everyone agrees the sport is in dire straits.

3 dire warning/prediction/forecast
a warning about something terrible that will happen in the future :
>>> Last night there were dire warnings of civil war.


offset AC
/ ɒfset, ɒfset $ ɒfset, ɒfset / verb ( past tense and past participle offset , present participle offsetting ) [ transitive ]

if the cost or amount of something offsets another cost or amount, the two things have an opposite effect so that the situation remains the same :
>>> Cuts in prices for milk, butter, and cheese will be offset by direct payments to farmers.
+ offset something against something
>>> He was able to offset his travel expenses against tax.
>>> Unfortunately, the significant increase we saw in sales in the last quarter was offset by the expenses
stemming from charges for the fire at our Turkey plant.



/ prɒmpt $ prɑːmpt / verb
1 [ transitive ] to make someone decide to do something
+ prompt somebody to do something
>>> What prompted you to buy that suit?

2 [ transitive ] to make people say or do something as a reaction :
>>> The decision prompted an outcry among prominent US campaigners.

>>> Two recent killings were prompted by the playing of video games.


prompt 2 W3 adjective
1 done quickly, immediately, or at the right time :
Prompt action must be taken.
Prompt payment is requested.
a prompt response


the jury is (still) out on something

used to say that something has not been finally decided :
>>> Is it good value? The jury is still out on that.


first past the post

/fəːst pɑːst ðə ˈpəʊst/
phrase of first

(of a contestant, especially a horse) winning a race by being the first to reach the finishing line.

first-past-the-post adjective
uk ​ /ˌfɜːst.pɑːst.ðəˈpəʊst/ us ​ /ˌfɝːst.pæst.ðəˈpoʊst/ UK

using a voting system in which a person is elected because they get more votes than anyone else in the area that they want to represent



/ˈpliːdɪŋli/ adverb (written)

in an emotional way that shows you very much want someone to do something

➡Kathleen looked at him pleadingly.



/ˈstæmnə/ noun [U]

physical or mental strength that lets you continue doing something for a long time without getting tired

➡You need stamina to be a long-distance runner.
➡ Elaine has the stamina and the determination to succeed.



a strong disagreement between two people or groups
⛥ collision between
➡ a collision between the two countries over fishing rights

an accident in which two or more people or vehicles hit each other while moving in different directions 
⛥collision with
➡The school bus was involved in a collision with a truck.

➡Two people were killed in a head-on collision(=between two vehicles that are moving directly towards each other) on highway 218.