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Flashcards in New Words 9 Deck (33):
1

words, events, or people that are ...... have no real worth or value

hollow / ˈhɒləʊ $ ˈhɑː- / adjective

>>> They won, but it was a “hollow victory . “
>>> Even as he spoke, Ivan was well aware of the “hollow ring” to his words.

2

a situation in which two statements are different and cannot both be true

inconsistency
/ ˌɪnkənˈsɪstənsi / noun

SYN contradiction
>>> There were several glaring inconsistencies (= very noticeable differences ) in his report.
+ inconsistency between
>>> Defence counsel looks for inconsistency between witness statements.
-------------------
inconsistent / ˌɪnkənˈsɪst ə nt◂ / adjective
1 two statements that are inconsistent cannot both be true SYN contradictory OPP consistent :
>>> The accounts of the witnesses are inconsistent.
+ inconsistent with
>>> His results are inconsistent with our data.
2 not right according to a particular set of principles or standards
OPP consistent
+ inconsistent with
>>> His conduct was inconsistent with what is expected of a Congressman.

3

on display

a) something that is on display is in a public place where people can look at it SYN on show :
>>> Mapplethorpe’s photographs were first “put on display” in New York.
+ be/go on display
>>> One of the world’s oldest cars has gone on display in Brighton today.
b) if a quality, feeling, or skill is on display, it is very clear and easy to notice :
>>> The musical talent on display is extremely impressive.

4

display of affection/emotion/aggression etc

an occasion when someone clearly shows a particular feeling, attitude, or quality :
>>> Unprovoked displays of aggression cannot be tolerated.

5

exile

/ˈeksaɪl, ˈegzaɪl/ noun

1) [singular, U] a situation in which you are forced to leave your country and live in another country, especially for political reasonsin exile
➡a writer now living in exile
➡He went into exile to escape political imprisonment.
⛥force/drive somebody into exile
➡The house was raided and the family was forced into exile.
➡He spent many years in enforced exile.
⛥voluntary/self-imposed exile
➡She had been in voluntary exile since 1990.
➖➖➖➖➖➖➖

exile
verb [T usually passive]to force someone to leave their country, especially for political reasons
⛥exile somebody to something
➡Several of the leaders were arrested and exiled to France.
⛥ exile somebody from something
➡a dictator who was exiled from his home country
➡the exiled former president

2) [C] someone who has been forced to live in exile
➡political exiles

6

grimy

/ˈgraɪmi/ adjectivecovered with dirt 
SYN filthy
➡ grimy windows

➖➖➖➖➖➖

grime
/graɪm/ noun [U]

a lot of dirt 

SYN filth
➡ The walls were black with grime.

7

nearness in distance or time

prox‧im‧i‧ty
/prɒkˈsɪmti $ prɑːk-/noun [U](formal) 
⛥ proximity to
➡We chose the house for its proximity to the school.
⛥proximity of
➡the proximity of the Bahamas to the States
➡Here the rich and the poor live in close proximity (=very near to each other) .

8

sus‧cep‧ti‧ble

/səˈseptbl/ adjective

1) likely to suffer from a particular illness or be affected by a particular problem 
⛥ susceptible to
➡ Older people are more susceptible to infections.
➡ Soil on the mountain slopes is very susceptible to erosion.

2) a susceptible person is easily influenced or attracted by someone or something 
🔺 SYN impressionable.
➡ A lot of TV advertising is aimed at susceptible young children.
⛥ susceptible to
➡ She was very susceptible to flattery

9

herald

نشانگر بودن

/ˈherəld/ verb [T]

 to be a sign of something that is going to come or happen soon
➡A flash of lightning heralded torrential rain.
➡Flashing blue lights heralded the arrival of the police.

➖➖➖➖➖

⛥ herald of something 
a sign that something is soon going to happen
➡a bowl of daffodils, the first bright heralds of spring

10

knock-on

با impact نمی آید. فقط با effect می آید.

adjective (BrE)have a knock-on effect (on something)

 to start a process in which everything that happens causes something else to happen

➡These price rises will have a knock-on effect on the economy.
سلسله مراتبی و دومینو وار

11

ambition

Collocations

Somebody’s ambition is to be/do something
➡ My ambition was to be a journalist.
⛥have an ambition
➡ He had an ambition to be a top cello player.

⛥achieve/fulfil/realize your ambition (=do what you wanted to do) It took her ten years to achieve her ambition.

⛥lack ambition/have no ambition Many of the students lack ambition.

⛥ nurse/harbour/cherish an ambition (=have it for a long time, especially secretly)

frustrate/thwart somebody’s ambitions(formal) (=prevent someone from achieving them)

12

cherish

/ˈtʆerɪʆ/ verb [T]

1) if you cherish something, it is very important to you
➡He cherished his privacy.
➡ I cherish the memory of that day.

⛥ cherish a hope/an idea/a dream an ambition etc

➡willingness to re-examine cherished beliefs

2) to love someone or something very much and take care of them well

➡In marriage, a man promises to cherish his wife.

➡his most cherished possession

13

to keep bad thoughts, fears, or hopes in your mind for a long time

harbour

(BrE) harbor (AmE) verb [T]


➡I think he’s harbouring some sort of grudge against me.

➡She began to harbour doubts over the wisdom of their journey.

To harbour an ambition

14

mono-



/mɒnəʊ, -nə $ -noʊ, -nə/prefix

one

➡ a monoplane (=a plane with only one wing on each side)

➡ a monolingual dictionary (=dealing with only one language)

15

monoculture

noun
/ˈmɒn.əˌkʌl.tʃər/ /ˈmɑː.nəˌkʌl.tʃɚ/


[ U ] the practice of growing only one crop or keeping only one type of animal on an area of farm land:
➡ Extensive irrigation for corn monoculture depletes water resources.


[ C ] an area of farm land on which only one crop is grown or one type of animal is kept, or the crops grown or animals kept there:
➡ These vast monocultures have replaced important ecosystems.

16

fungus

/ˈfʌŋgəs/ noun (plural fungi /-dʒaɪ, -gaɪ/or funguses)[C,U] 
a simple type of plant that has no leaves or flowers and that grows on plants or other surfaces.
🔊 MUSHROOM and MOULD are both fungi.

➖➖➖➖➖➖➖


fun‧gi‧cide
/ˈfʌndʒsaɪd, ˈfʌŋg-/ noun [C,U]
🔸🔹a chemical used for destroying fungus

➖➖➖➖➖➖➖

fungal
/ˈfʌŋgl/ adjectiveconnected with or caused by a FUNGUS
➡a fungal infection

17

break‧neck

/ˈbreɪknek/ adjective

⛥ at breakneck speed/pace
⚌ extremely and often dangerously fast

➡ He drove away at breakneck speed.

18

boiling point

a point where people can no longer deal calmly with a problem 
➡ Relations between the two countries have almost reached boiling point.

19

dor‧mant

/ˈdɔːmənt $ ˈdɔːr-/adjective

not active or not growing at the present time but able to be active later 

🔺 OPP active
⛥lie/remain dormant
➡The seeds remain dormant until the spring.
➡ a huge dormant volcano

20

sprout

/spraʊt/ verb

1) [I,T] if vegetables, seeds, or plants sprout, they start to grow, producing SHOOT , BUD , or leaves

➡Move the pots outside when the seeds begin to sprout.
➡Trees were starting to sprout new leaves.

21

canard

/kæˈnɑːd $ kəˈnɑːrd/noun [C] (written)

a piece of news that is false and is told to people deliberately in order to harm someone
➖➖➖➖➖
a false report or piece of information that is intended to deceive people

22

mankind

/ˌmænˈkaɪnd/ noun [U]
all humans considered as a group 
🔺 SYN humankind

➡Since earliest times, mankind has been fascinated by fire.
➡one of the most important events in the history of mankind

23

consequence

far-reaching consequences (=important and affecting many things)
➖➖➖➖➖➖
long-term consequences (=results that last a long time, or appear after a long time)
➖➖➖➖➖➖

an inevitable consequence (=that you cannot avoid)

➖➖➖➖➖➖
⛥ disastrous/dire consequences (=very bad and damaging) 

➡If temperatures continue to rise, it could have disastrous consequences for agriculture.

⛥social/political/economic consequencesa

⛥ direct consequence of something (=a consequence directly caused by something)

24

mar‧gin‧al


AC /ˈmɑːdʒnl $ ˈmɑːr-/adjective

1) a marginal change or difference is too small to be important OPP significant
➡ a marginal increase in the unemployment figures
➡ a marginal improvement in profits
➖➖➖➖➖

🔊 marginal people or groups are not considered powerful or important 
🔺 OPP mainstream
➡ The album contains too many songs by marginal bands.

25

Over-Cultivation

the excessive use of farmland to the point where productivity falls due to soil exhaustion or land degradation.
➖➖➖➖
Overgrazing: the destruction of the protective vegetation cover by having too many animals grazing upon it.

چریدن graze
⛥ graze on
➡ Groups of cattle were grazing on the rich grass.
➡ fields where they used to graze their sheep

26

de‧sert‧i‧fi‧ca‧tion

/dɪˌzɜːtfˈkeɪʆn $ -ˌzɜːr-/noun [U]
(technical)
the process by which useful land, especially farmland, changes into desert

27

sol‧u‧ble

/ˈsɒljbl $ ˈsɑː-/adjective

1) a soluble substance can be DISSOLVE in a liquid
➡ soluble aspirinwater-soluble(=that can be dissolved in water)

2) (formal) a problem that is soluble can be solved
🔺 OPP insoluble—

 solubility /ˌsɒljˈbɪlti $ ˌsɑː-/noun

28

in‧gre‧di‧ent

/ɪnˈgriːdiənt/ 

➡Combine all the ingredients in a large bowl.
➡The food is home-cooked using fresh ingredients.

2) a quality you need to achieve something
➡John has all the ingredients of a great player.
➡Investment in new product development is an essential ingredient of corporate success

29

trait

/treɪ, treɪt $ treɪt/noun [C]

(formal)

 a particular quality in someone’s character
⛥personality/character traits
➡a mental illness associated with particular personality traits

⛥genetic/inherited traits

30

labour



AC (BrE) labor (AmE) verb [I]

1) to work hard
➡ They laboured all day in the
mills.
⛥labour over
➡I’ve been labouring over this report all morning.
⛥labour to do something
➡Ray had little talent but labored to acquire the skills of a writer.

⛥ 2) labour under a delusion/misconception/misapprehension etc to believe something that is not true
➡She had laboured under the misconception that Bella liked her.

31

creep

/kriːp/ verb (past tense and past participle crept /krept/ ) [I always + adv/prep]
به آهستگی رشد کردن یا وارد جایی شدن
1) to move in a quiet, careful way, especially to avoid attracting attention
⛥ creep into/over/around etc
➡ Johann would creep into the gallery to listen to the singers.
➡ He crept back up the stairs, trying to avoid the ones that creaked.

2) if something such as an insect, small animal, or car creeps, it moves slowly and quietly 
⛥ creep down/along/away etc
➡ a caterpillar creeping down my arm

3) to gradually enter something and change it
⛥ creep in/into/over etc
➡ Funny how religion is creeping into the environmental debate.

4) if a plant creeps, it grows or climbs up or along a particular placecreep up/over/around etc
➡ ivy creeping up the walls of the building

32

advance

(Noun)

از advancement استفاده نمیکنیم که کلا معنی متفاوتی دارد.

development/improvement 

 a change, discovery, or INVENTION that brings progress

⛥technological/scientific/medical etc advance
➡ one of the great technological advances of the 20th century
➡ a major advance

⛥advance in
➡Recent advances in genetics have raised moral questions.advance on
➡an advance on previous treatments
➡the advances made in the understanding of mental handicap

33

ir‧re‧ver‧si‧ble

AC /ˌɪrɪˈvɜːsbl◂ $ -ɜːr-/adjective

1) irreversible damage, change etc is so serious or so great that you cannot change something back to how it was before 
🔺 OPP reversible
➡Fossil fuels have caused irreversible damage to the environment

2) if an illness or bad physical condition is irreversible, it will continue to exist and cannot be cured
➡Miller is in an irreversible coma.
➡irreversible blindness

— irreversibly adverb
➡His reputation was irreversibly damaged by the affair.