November 20, 2015 - Monoarticular Arthritis Flashcards Preview

COURSE 2 > November 20, 2015 - Monoarticular Arthritis > Flashcards

Flashcards in November 20, 2015 - Monoarticular Arthritis Deck (15):
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Synovial Fluid Memory Chart

A image thumb
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Normal Synovial Fluid

Appearance - Clear colourless

Viscosity - High (because of hyaluronic acid)

Cell Count < 200 mm3

% Polyps - < 25%

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Type I Synovial Fluid

Non-inflammatory

 

Appearance - Clear straw

Viscosity - High

Cell Count 200-2000 mm3

% Polyps - < 25%

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Type II Synovial Fluid

Inflammatory

 

Appearance - Turbid yellow

Viscosity - Fair

Cell count - 5000-50000 mm3

% Polyps - >50%

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Type III Synovial Fluid

Septic

 

Appearance - Turbid yellow

Viscosity - Poor

Cell count - 50,000-200,000 mm3

% Polyps - >75%

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Type IV Synovial Fluid

Bloody

 

Appearance - Bloody or serosanguinous

Viscosity - Variable

Cell count - 200-10,000 mm3

% Polyps - >50%

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Causes of Type I Synovial Fluid

(Non-inflammatory)

 

Traumatic synovitis

Torn meniscus

Osteochondromatosis

Osteochondritis dessicans

Osteoarthritis

Spontaneous osteonecrosis knee (SONK)

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Causes of Type II Synovial Fluid

(Inflammatory)

 

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid variants (panindromic rheumatism etc.)

Seronegative arthropathies (ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthropathies, IBD, reactive arthropathies)

Crystal arthropathies (gout, pseudogout)

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Causes of Type III Synovial Fluid

(Septic)

 

Septic arthritis

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Causes of Type IV Synovial Fluid

(Bloody)

 

Traumatic hemarthrosis

Bleeding disorders

Pigmented villonodular synovitis

Synovial sarcoma (RARE)

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Osteoarthritis Dessicans

Can cause Type I Synovial Fluid.

 

Devitalized fragment of bone with its overlying articular cartilage seperates from the lateral portion of the medial condyle of the femur.

Affects adolescents and young adults.

May have recurrent effusions and sometimes "locking" of the joint.

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Torn Meniscus

Can cause Type I Synovial Fluid.

 

Following a twisting injury, the patient has knee on the anteromedial aspect of the knee. The following day there is swelling of the knee and an inability to extend completely. Usually subsides after 2 weeks.

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Osteochondromatosis

Can cause Type I Synovial Fluid.

 

Cause proliferation of osteochondromas (benign tumor of bone). Results in mild swelling, pain, and often limited ROM of the joint.

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Spontaneous Osteonecrosis of the Knee (SONK)

Can cause Type I Synovial Fluid.

 

Affects weight bearing surface of the medial femoral condyle. Tenderness and severe and sudden onset of pain can occur. X-ray appears normal, but will be visible on an MRI.

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Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis

Can cause Type IV Synovial Fluid.

 

Causes inflammation and overgrowth of the knee lining. It usually affects the hip or the knee. The synovium becomes swollen and grows which harms the bone next to the joint and creates extra fluid that causes swelling.

Synovial tissue is brown in colour due ot the hemosiderin-laden macrophages.

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