November 6, 2015 - Fractures Flashcards Preview

COURSE 2 > November 6, 2015 - Fractures > Flashcards

Flashcards in November 6, 2015 - Fractures Deck (14):
1

Stages of Bone Healing

1. Bleeding

2. Inflammation

3. Proliferation

4. Remodelling

2

Osteoblasts

Form bone

3

Osteoclasts

Resorb bone

4

Osteocytes

Maintain bone

5

Avascular Necrosis

Bones with poor blood supply also at risk for avascular necrossi and non-union. 

For example, the femoral head/neck, scaphoid, and talus. This is because much of these bones are encased in cartilige which does not allow vessels to pass through.

6

Factors that Promote Bone Healing

Youth

Calcium

Vitamin D

Moderate stress

Electric stimulation

Ultrasound

Anabolic hormones

7

Factors that Delay Bone Healing

Poor blood supply

Old age

Lack of Calcium

Lack of Vitamin D

Tobacco dependence

NSAIDs

Corticosteroids

Excessive bone gap

8

Stress Fracture

Microfracture resulting from repetitive sub-threshold loading that ultimately exceeds the bone's intrinsic ability to repair itself.

Often impact sports.

9

Periostitis

Inflammation of the connective tissue covering the bone surface; the periosteum. This is highly pain sensitive as it has significant nerve and vascular supply. 

Most common in tibia = shin splints (anterior tibia)

10

Immediate Assessment of Bone Injury

You need to ask whether the fracture you are dealing with is potentially life-threatening or limb-threatening.

11

Ottawa Ankle Rules

The guideline to aid in deciding when to use x-ray for injuries to the ankle.

Widely used.

12

Nonunion

A permanent failure of healing following a broken bone. This is a serious complication of a fracture.

Often due to avascular necrosis, the two ends are not fixed (next to each other), or infection.

13

Malunion

Occurs when a fractured bone doesn't heal properly. It may heal twisted, shorter, or bent.

14

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