Function of Bones
Blood cell production
Storage of triglycerides
Mineral storage and release
The main component of bone.
A specialized cell to break down bone. Formed from a conglomeration of macrophages (can be as many as 50) which are capable of releasing enzymes to degrade the bone.
These are important so old bone can be renewed.
About 10% of the adult skeleton is remodelled annually.
RANK Ligand (RANKL)
RANK Ligand is needed for osteoclast activity.
Needed for osteoblast activity.
Vitamin D Production
Produced in response to UV light (need to get a slight burn)
Processed in the liver, therefore patients suffering from liver disease will get decreased levels of Vitamin D.
Bone fractures that occur from non-traumatic events.
Could be a fall from standing, from sitting, from laying down, or movement outside the typical plane of motion.
Complications of Osteoporosis
Poor fracture healing
Decreased quality of life
Anxiety about future
Classification of Osteoporosis
Type I - postmenopausal
Type II - age related
Caused by medications or underlying conditions
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
Gold standard for bone mineral density
Bone Mineral Density Classification
Normal: +2.5 to -1.0
Osteopenia: Between -1.0 and -2.5
Osteoporosis: Less than -2.5
Severe Osteoporosis: Less than -2.5 with Fragility Fracture
A monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Targets RANKL so that it cannot bind to the RANK receptors on the osteoclasts and they therefore do not become activated.