November 6, 2015 - Bone Biology Flashcards Preview

COURSE 2 > November 6, 2015 - Bone Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in November 6, 2015 - Bone Biology Deck (13):
1

Function of Bones

Support

Protection

Movement

Blood cell production

Storage of triglycerides

Mineral storage and release

2

Hydroxylapatite

The main component of bone.

3

Osteoclast

A specialized cell to break down bone. Formed from a conglomeration of macrophages (can be as many as 50) which are capable of releasing enzymes to degrade the bone.

These are important so old bone can be renewed.

About 10% of the adult skeleton is remodelled annually.

4

RANK Ligand (RANKL)

RANK Ligand is needed for osteoclast activity.

5

OPG

Needed for osteoblast activity.

6

Vitamin D Production

Produced in response to UV light (need to get a slight burn)

Processed in the liver, therefore patients suffering from liver disease will get decreased levels of Vitamin D.

7

Fragility Fractures

Bone fractures that occur from non-traumatic events.

Could be a fall from standing, from sitting, from laying down, or movement outside the typical plane of motion.

8

Complications of Osteoporosis

Fractures

Poor fracture healing

Decreased independence

Decreased quality of life

Depression

Anxiety about future

Mortality

9

Classification of Osteoporosis

Primary

Type I - postmenopausal

Type II - age related

 

Secondary

Caused by medications or underlying conditions

10

DEXA

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

 

Gold standard for bone mineral density

11

Bone Mineral Density Classification

Normal: +2.5 to -1.0

Osteopenia: Between -1.0 and -2.5

Osteoporosis: Less than -2.5

Severe Osteoporosis: Less than -2.5 with Fragility Fracture

12

Denosumab

A monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of osteoporosis.

Targets RANKL so that it cannot bind to the RANK receptors on the osteoclasts and they therefore do not become activated.

13

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