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Flashcards in Obesity & Starvation Deck (23)
1

Identify the energy components of energy expenditure in humans.

Basal Metabolism (50-65%) - resting state
(included body temperature maintenance, breathing, heart beat, cellular activities)

Thermic Effect (10%) - energy expended in order to consume and process food

Physical activities (30-50%) greatest variability depending on a person's activity level

2

Define basal metabolism.

Basal Metabolism (50-65%) - resting state
includes:
body temperature maintenance
breathing
heart beat
cellular activities

*The more a person weighs the more total energy is expended on BM (energy per pound is likely lower)x

3

List the factors that influence basal metabolic rate.

Age
Height (thin, tall people have higher BMR)
Growth
Body composition/Gender
fever
stresses
environmental temperature
fasting/starvation (lowers BMR)
malnutrition (lowers BMR)
hormones
smoking/caffeine (increases energy expenditure)
sleep (BMR is lowest when sleeping)

4

List multiple influences of hunger, satiation, satiety.

physiological influences
sensory influences
cognitive influences
postingestive influences
postabsorption influences

5

Compare and contrast different types of body fat.

Deep visceral fat - apple shape
Subcutaneous fat - pear shape

Brown Fat - much smaller fat droplets and is specialized to burn, yielding heat
-burns more calories
- packed with mitochondria
-constitutive BAT (cBAT)
- recruitable BAT (rBAT)

White Fat - large fat droplets
-few mitochondria
-large lipid volume

6

What is essential fat associated with?

bone marrow
central nervous system
internal organs

7

Where are high LPL (lipoprotein lipase) activities found in women? men?

women - breasts, hips, thighs
men - abdomen

8

What happens after weight loss to LPL activity?

LPL activity increases
- why most people regain weight

9

List the 6 main causes of obesity.

Genetics/Epigenetics
Environmental
Cultural
Behavioral
Socioeconomic
Psychological

10

What are two genetic/epigenetic causes of obesity?

Prader-Willi
-one characteristic is an insatiable appetite which leads to chronic overeating and obesity

Leptin (LEP/OB)
-leptin signals sufficient energy stores and suppresses appetite

-mutations in leptin gene or encoding its receptor have insatiable appetites and become obese

11

What is the principal cause of hunger?
What else is viewed as a current and future cause of hunger and poverty?

poverty
climate change

12

What is the poverty-obesity paradox?

The highest rates of obesity occur among those living in the greatest poverty.

Healthy food choices are not readily available in low-income neighborhoods.

13

Define a food desert.

- parts of the country vapid of fresh fruit, vegetables and healthful whole foods
Due to lack of:
- grocery store
- farmer's market
- healthy food providers

14

Compare fasting and starvation.

Fasting -people choose not to eat
Starvation - people have no choice

15

What is broken down during fasting?

muscle
liver

16

How would you look for signs of fasting?

Elevated BUN levels show signs of protein degradation

17

What are causes of starvation?

Medical:
Anorexia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa
Celiac disease
Coma
Depression
Diabetes
Digestive disorders
Vomiting

Circumstantial:
Famine
Fasting
Poverty

18

What are symptoms of starvation?

wasting
slow heart rate
slowed respiration
slowed metabolism
lowered body temperature
impaired vision
organ failure
reduced resistance to disease
depression
anxiety

19

Define eating disorder?

disturbances in eating behavior that jeopardize a person's physical or psychological health

20

What is disordered eating?

eating behaviors that are neither normal or healthy, including restrained eating, fasting, binge eating, and purging.

21

Define anorexia nervosa.

Eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight and a distortion in perception of body shape and weight

22

Define bulimia nervosa.

Eating disorder characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting or excessive exercise

23

What are some tips for combating eating disorders?

- never restrict food amounts below suggested USDA guidelines
- eat frequently to avoid allowing hunger to dictate food choices
-establish reasonable weight goals
- allow a reasonable time to achieve the weight goal
-establish a weight maintenance group

For athletes/dancers
- make performance-based goals
-restrict weight-loss activities to the off-season
-focus on proper nutrition