Part 91 - D (Instrument flight Rules) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Part 91 - D (Instrument flight Rules) Deck (22)
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What are the minimum flight crew requirements for IFR?

Must not operate single pilot unless;
-Aircraft flight manual authorises the operation
-Aircraft is fitted with communication equipment that can be operated without releasing the flight controls


What are the minimum fuel requirements for flights under IFR?

Taking into account met reports and forecasts, it carries sufficient fuel to;
-No alternate: fly for 45 minutes at holding speed at 1500ft above destination aerodrome level, or for 30 minutes if the aircraft is a turbine powered aircraft
-Alternate: Fly to destination, and then on to the alternate, and be able to fly overhead alternate at 1500ft AGL for 45 minutes or for 30 minutes if the aircraft is turbine powered.


When must the PiC list an alternate for an IFR flight?

Must always list an alternate unless;
-Destination has a standard instrument approach listed in the applicable AIP; and
-At time of flight plan submission, the met forecasts for ETA +/- 1 hour indicate that
=Ceiling is at least 1000ft above published minima for the expected instrument approach
=visibility will be at least 5km or 2000m more than the published minima in AIP, whichever is more restrictive


What requirements must be met for an aerodrome to be listed as an IFR alternate?

-Must not list it unless;
-met forecasts indicate at the ETA, the ceiling and visibility are above the following met minima:
=If published, AIP minima for specific instrument approach procedure
=Precision: Ceiling 600ft or DA+200, vis 3000m or 1000m above minima (whichever is most restrictive)
=Non Precision: Ceiling 800ft or MDA+200, vis 4000m or 1500m above minima (whichever is greater)
=If no instrument approach procedure: ceiling and visibility minima for VFR once below MDA
-Aerodrome must have secondary electric power available for Ground nav aids required for instrument approach and for lighting.
*additional part 19 requirement if doing GNSS*


What must the PiC do in regards to an IFR flight plan?

-Submit a flight plan to appropriate ATS unit for any IFR flight
-Submit plan at least 30 minutes prior to beginning of flight
-Provide flight ID, a/c type, wake turbulence category, comm and nav equipment carried, ETD and departure AD, Cruise speed, altitude, route, Destination, EET, alternate, etc.
-advise ATS ASAP of any delay in excess of 30 minutes
-terminate flight plan as soon as practicable on landing


Under what conditions can a PiC deviate from flight plan?

-When a request for change has been made and clearance obtained
-In an emergency with requires an immediate action to deviate from flight plan.
-PiC must notify ATS as soon as possible.


When en-route, how must a pilot fly the aeroplane?

-Operate along the defined centreline of the route
-Operate directly between nav aids or points defining the route
-Operate along centreline of offset or parallel routes specified by ATC


If you inadvertently deviate from flight plan route, what should you do? What changes to parameters constitute a change?

-Advise ATS of:
=Any deviation form track
=Any variation of Tastes of 5% or Mach by 0.01
=A revised ETA when current ETA is found to be in error of more than 2 minutes
-Must regain track as soon as possible


When carrying dangerous goods, when must ATS be informed?

-ASAP when an inflight emergency arises -by the PiC
or if the operator becomes aware of an emergency, as soon as possible.


What are acceptable forms of visual reference on an aerodrome? (9)

-Approach lighting system
-Threshold markings
-Threshold lights
-Runway end identification lighting
-Touchdown zone or touchdown zone markings
-Touchdown zone lighting
-Runway or runway markings
-Runway lights


What is the reduced takeoff minima? What are requirements to be able to carry out a reduced minima takeoff?

0ft ceiling, 800m visibility
-Runway used has centreline marking or lights
-Visibility is confirmed by PiC by observing centreline marking or lighting
-Reduced take off minima published in applicable AIP
-Obstacles in take off path are taken into account
-If aircraft is a twin, it must have an operative auto feather or auto coarse system.


If there are varying MDA/DA/DH minima prescribed for the plane, pilot or instrument approach procedure, which one should be used?

Highest of the 3


How must an aircraft operate below MDA/DA/DH?

Must not continue below unless:
-a/c is continuously in a position from which it can land on the intended runway, at normal RoD, using normal manoeuvres, that allows touchdown in the touchdown zone
-Visibility is not less than the published minima for that IAP
-Except for CAT II/ CAT III at least 1 visual reference is always maintained


What conditions are normally required for a take-off under IFR?

-Above weather minima published in the AIP for that aerodrome
-If minima are not published;
=300ft ceiling, 1500m visibility


How must a pilot operate when icing conditions are present?

-Shall not take-off with snow, ice or frost adhering to any propeller, windscreen, power plant, or flight instrument systems, or any wings, stabilisers or control surfaces
-Shall not fly into known or forecast icing conditions unless certified with ice protection equipment for flight in that type of icing
-May take off with snow, ice or frost, as long as it is operated in accordance with flight manual, instructions from the manufacturer for those conditions
-May disregard ice protection requirements if forecasts change and indicate that conditions will not be present


What are the minimum IFR altitudes? on evaluated and unevaluated routes?

-PIC must not operate IFR below these altitudes unless during T/O or LDG
-Applicable minimum altitudes published in AIP, or of min altitude not published in AIP;
=in mountainous zones, 2000ft above highest obstacle within 5nm either side of position
=1000ft above highest obstacle within 5nm either side of position


What are the IFR cruising altitudes in the NZFIR? think about tracks

-Track 270˚M - 089˚M : Odd thousand foot altitude AMSL, or Odd flight level at/above FL150
-Track 090˚M - 269˚M : Even thousand foot altitude AMSL, or even flight level
**Up to & including FL410**

Beyond FL410, 2000ft vertical separation applies. FL430=Southerly, FL450=Northerly etc.


What are some limitations to the IFR cruising altitudes/Flight levels around the transition layer?

-Must not cruise in transition layer unless authorised by ATC for flight in controlled airspace
-No flight levels below FL160 when QNH is 980 or less
-Not below FL160 when operating within 20nm of Mt Cook

-May cruise in transition layer outside controlled airspace when no conflict exists, an ATS unit is aware and the aircraft cannot be operated below or above the transition layer


What are the IFR cruising altitude sin the AOFIR?

-Track 000˚M - 179˚M : Odd thousand foot altitude AMSL, or Odd flight level at/above FL150
-Track 180˚M - 359˚M : Even thousand foot altitude AMSL, or even flight level
**Up to & including FL410**

Beyond FL410, 2000ft vertical separation applies. FL430=Southerly, FL450=Northerly etc.


How must an IFR pilot be with regard to radio comms? When does a pilot not have to report?

-Maintain continuous listening watch on appropriate frequency
-Report ASAP to an ATS unit:
=Time and altitude passing designated reporting point
=any other safety relevant info

-Only have to report specifically requested points when under radar control "Radar identified"


What should the PIC do if they have a comm failure when operating IFR?

-If VMC is present or encountered, continue under VFR
-If continued VMC is uncertain, flow in accordance with flight plan, following any clearances until the point specified
-If under radar vectors, continue last vector for 2 min, then continue with flight plan
-If en-route, track to destination fix, and only descent in the hold after the expected approach time
-If on the approach, continue to IAF, descent in the hold and continue procedure
-If vectored on approach, maintain assigned altitude to final approach, and continue procedure
-If need to divert, hold until covert time, then continue to alternate in flight plan
-If on missed approach, continue approached fro 30 minutes, then divert


What are the magnetic cruising altitudes in the AOFIR?

000˚M - 179˚M: Odd altitudes/FL (up to and including FL410)
180˚M - 359˚M: Even altitudes/FL

Beyond FL140 200ft vertical separation applies