Pathology 1 Flashcards Preview

First Aid Hem/Onc > Pathology 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology 1 Deck (54):
1

RBC morphology associated with liver disease, abetalipoproteinemia

Acanthocyte (spur cell)

2

Basophilic stippling of RBC

Anemia of Chronic Disease, Alcohol Abuse, Leading Poisoning, Thalassemias

3

Bite cell

G6PD deficiency

4

Hereditary elliptocytosis

Abnormal cell membrane proteins, Elliptocytes

5

Excess iron in mitochondria

Ringed sideroblast

6

Schistocyte, helmet cell

DIC, TTP/HUS, traumatic hemolysis (mechanical heart valve prosthesis)

7

Stomatocyte

due to expansion of inner leaflet of lipid bilayer, liver disease or alcoholism or stomatocytosis

8

Sickle Cell

Point Mutation beta-globin chain of HbA
Valine to glutamic acid in position 6

9

Spherocyte

Hereditary spherocytosis, autoimmune hemolysis

10

Dakryocyte

teardrop cell, extramedullary hematopoiesis, BM infiltration (RBC been forced out)

11

Target Cell

HbC disease, Asplenia, Liver Dx, Thalassemia

12

Pencil Cell

Iron Deficiency

13

Heinz Bodies

Seen in G6PD deficiency, oxidized Hb sulhydryl groups causing denatured Hb precipitation

14

Howell-Jolly Bodies

Basophilic nuclear remnants found in RBCs
Seen in patients with functional hyposplenia or asplenia

15

Methemoglobinemia

oxidized Iron (3+) therefor can't pick up oxygen
if hereditary deficiency of metahemaglobin reductase deficiency or structurally abnormal HbM

16

MCV <80fL

Microcytic Anemia: Late iron deficiency, anemia of chronic dx, thalassemia, Lead poisoning, Sideroblastic anemia

17

MCV 80-100fL Non-hemolytic

Start of anemia of chronic disease, aplastic anemia, chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency (early)

18

MCV 80-100fL Intrinsic Hemolysis

RBC membrane defect (hereditary spherocytosis), G6PD or PK deficiency, HbC defect, Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria, Sickle Cell

19

MCV 80-100fL Extrinsic Hemolysis

Autoimmune, Microangiopathic, Macroangiopathic, Infections

20

MCV >100fL megaloblastic

folate and B12 deficiency, orotic aciduria

21

MCV >100fL non-megaloblastic

Liver disease, Alcoholism, Reticulocytosis

22

Decreased Iron & ferritin, Increased TIBC

Iron deficiency

23

Iron deficiency anemia, esophageal webs, beefy red tongue and atrophic glossitis

Plummer-Vinson Syndrome

24

Alpha-globulin gene deletion

alpha-thalassemia

25

Cis deletion of alpha-globulin

Asian Population

26

Trans deletion of alpha-globulin

African Population

27

4-alpha allele deletion

Hb Barts, excess gamma-globin. Causes Hydrops Fetalis

28

3-alpha allele deletion

HbH disease, Excess beta-globin forms Beta4

29

Koilonychias

Spooned nails seen with iron deficiency

30

Beta Thalassemia Minor

heterozygote, beta chain is under produced, usually asymptomatic, increased HbA2 >3.5% on electrophoresis

31

Beta Thalassemia Major

homozygote, beta chain is absent, req blood transfusions, increase in HbF, HbF is protective in the infant for 6months. Chr 11

32

Crew-cut on skull X-ray

Marrow expansion associated with Beta-Thalassemia

33

Chipmunk facies

Associated with Beta-Thalassemia Major

34

HbS/Beta-thalassemia heterozygote

mild to moderate sickle cell disease depending on amount of beta-globin production

35

Inhibits Ferrochelatase and ALA dehydratase

Lead poisoning

36

Romanosysky Stain

Lead Poisoning, basophilic stippling of RBCs

37

Burton Lines

Lead lines on gingivae and on metaphyses of long bones

38

1st line of tx for lead poisoning

Dimercaprol and ADTA

39

Wrist drop and foot drop

Lead poisoning

40

Encephalopathy, erythrocyte stippling, abdominal colic and sideroblastic anemia

Lead Poisoning

41

X-linked decfect in delta-ALA synthase

Sideroblastic Anemia

42

Tx for Sideroblastic Anemia

Pyridoxine (B6, cofactor for delta-ALA synthase)

43

Primary Acquired form of Sideroblastic Anemia

myelofibrosis, myeloid leukemia or myeloma or drugs like Isoniazid + Cycloserine

44

Impaired DNA synthesis in RBCs

Megaloblastic anemia

45

Diphyllobothrium latum

B12 deficiency

46

Subacute combined degeneration

B12 deficiency, affecting dorsal columns (vibration/proprioception)
Lateral Corticospinal (spasticity)

47

Increased homocysteine, increased methylmalonic acid

B12 deficiency

48

Pernicious Anemia

Parietal cell antibodies inhibiting Intrinsic factor binding

49

Inhibits Fatty Acid Pathways and Myelin Synthesis

B12 deficiency

50

Defect in UMP synthase

Orotic Aciduria, autosomal recessive

51

Children w/ megaloblastic anemia that cannot be cured with folate or Vit B12

Orotic Aciduria, autosomal recessive

52

Tx of Orotic Aciduria

Uridine Monophosphate

53

Defect in de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway

Orotic aciduria

54

What is broke in my Kitchen

Clock