Pathology 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology 2 Deck (57):
1

Decreased Haptoglobin, Increased LDH, schistocytes and increased reticulocytes, and Urobilinogen in urine

Intravascular Hemolysis

2

Spherocytes in peripheral smear, increased LDH and UCB causing jaundice

Extravascular Hemolysis

3

Anemia of Chronic Dx

Increase in hepcidin and inhibits iron transport, decreases release of iron from macrophages

4

Aplastic Anemia

caused by failure or destruction of myeloid stem cells due to radiation, drugs, viruses (B19, EBV, HIV, HCV), Fanconi anemia, idiopathic

5

Defect in ankyrin, band 3, protein4.2, spectrin

Hereditary Spherocytosis

6

Osmotic Fragility Test

Hereditary Spherocytosis

7

Sulfa drugs, antimalarials, infections, fava beans

Acute hemolytic anemia from G6PD deficiency

8

back pain, hemoglobinuria a few days after oxidant stress

G6PD deficiency

9

G6PD deficiency Resistance to

P. falciparum

10

Hemolytic anemia in a newborn masked by 2,3 BPG

Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

11

Glutamic Acid to Lysine Mutation at residue 6 in beta-globin

HbC defect

12

Impaired synthesis of GPI anchor for decay-accelerating factor that protects RBC membrane from complement

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

13

Coomb negative hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, and venous thrombosis, CD55/59 negative RBCs on flow cytometry

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

14

Tx for Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

Eculizumab

15

Salmonella osteomyelitis

Sickle cell anemia

16

Dactylitis

Painful vaso-occlusive crisis in bones associated with sickle cell disease

17

Renal Papillary Necrosis

due to low oxygen in papilla; also seen in heterozygotes and microhematuria (medullary infarcts)

18

Tx of Sickle Cell Anemia

Hydroxyurea to increase fetal hemoglobin
BM transplant

19

Warm Agglutinin

IgG, Coombs (+), chronic anemia seen in SLE, CLL or with alpha-methyldopa

20

Cold Agglutinin

IgM, acute anemia triggered by cold; seem om CLL, Mycoplasma pneumonia, infectious mononucleosis

21

Direct Coombs

anti-Ig antibody added to patient's blood. RBCs agglutinate if RBCs are coated with Ig

22

Indirect Coombs

normal RBCs added to patient's serum. If serum has anti-RBC surface Ig, RBCs agglutinate when anti-Ig antibodies added

23

ADAMTS13 deficient

TTP

24

Causes of Eosinopenia

Cushing Syndrome, corticosteroids

25

Enzyme affected in Acute Intermittent Porphyria

Porphobilinogen deaminase

26

Painful abdomen, Port wine colored urine, Polyneuropathy, Psychological disturbances, Precipitated by drugs, alcohol and starvation

Acute Intermittent Porphyria

27

Deficient in Porphyria cutanea tarda

Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase

28

Blistering cutaneous photosensitivity

Porphyria cutanea tarda

29

Tx for Acute Intermittent Porphyria

Glucose and Heme, they inhibit ALA synthase

30

Enzyme deficient in lead poisoning

delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase

31

Defect in Factors I, II, V, VII, and X

increases PT

32

Tx for Hemophilia A

Recombinant Factor VIII

33

Warfarin on PT and PTT

both increase

34

Defect in platelet-to-platelet aggregation

Glanzmann Thrombasthenia

35

Decreased GpIIb/IIIa

Glanzmann Thrombasthenia

36

Defect in platelet to vWF adhesion

Bernard-Soulier Syndrome

37

anti-GpIIb/IIIa antibodies, may be triggered by viral illness

Immune Thrombocytopenia

38

vWF metalloprotease

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic purpura

39

Neurologic and renal symptoms, fever, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic purpura

40

Tx of TTP

transfusion and steroids

41

Diseases with decreased Plt Count and increased Bleeding time

Bernard-Soulier Syndrome, Immune Thrombocytopenia, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic purpura

42

igG + Heparin + Platelet Factor 4

HIT

43

Tx of HIT

Direct Thrombin Inhibitors

44

Osler-Weber-Rendu

hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

45

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Female of reproductive years, plts opsonized by anti-plt Ig

46

Hemolytic Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal Failure

HUS

47

Tx of von Willebrand Dx

DDAVP which releases vWF stored in endothelium

48

Widespread activation of clotting leads to a deficiency in clotting factors, which creates a bleeding state

DIC

49

Best screening test for DIC

D-dimers

50

Decreased ability to inactivate factors V and VIII

Protein C or S deficiency

51

Most common hypercoagulability in whites

Factor V Leiden

52

Virchows Triad

Disrupt blood flow, endothelial cell damage, hypercoaguable state

53

Packed RBCs

increases Hb and oxygen carrying capacity
Used in acute blood loss and severe anemia

54

Platelet Transfusion

to increase plt count what <5000, used to stop significant bleeding

55

Fresh Frozen Plasma

Increases coagulation factor levels
used in DIC, cirrhosis, warfarin overdose, exchange transfusion in TTP/HUS

56

Cryoprecipitate

Contains fibrinogen, factor VIII, factor XIII, vWF and fibronectin
To treat coagulation factor deficiencies involving fibrinogen and factor VIII

57

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