Pathology 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology 2 Deck (18):
1

Normal pulmonary artery pressure

10-14mmHg

2

Pulmonary HTN artery pressure

>25mmHg at rest

3

Pulmonary HTN affects on the arteries

arteriosclerosis, medial hypertrophy, and intimal fibrosis

4

Primary cause of Pulmonary HTN

inactivating mutation in BMPR2 gene; normally functions to inhibit vascuar smooth muscle proliferation

5

Destruction of lung parenchyma

COPD

6

Mitral stenosis effect on pulmonary arteries

increases resistance and pressure which leads to pHTN

7

Recurrent thromboemboli in the pulmonary circulation

decreases cross-sectional area of polmonary vascular bed; resulting in pHTN

8

left-to-right shunt

increases sheer stress causing endothelial injury

9

Sleep apnea or living at high altitude

hypoxic vasoconstriction

10

Course of pHTN til death

severe respiratory distress > cyanosis and RVH > death from decompensated cor pulmonale

11

Central sleep apnea

No respiratory effort; cessation of breathing during sleep >10sec

12

Obstruction Sleep Apnea

respiratory effort against airway obstruction. associated with obesity and loud snoring

13

Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

Obesity >30BMI; hypoventilation, decrease PaO2 and increase PaCO2 during waking hours

14

Tx of Sleep Apnea

Weight loss; CPAP; Sx

15

Hyperresonant Percussion

Spontaneous pneumothorax; Tension pneumothorax

16

Trachea deviates towards side of lesion

Atelectasis; bronchial obstruction

17

Trachea deviates away from lesion

Tension Pneumothorax

18

bronchial breath sounds; late inspiratory crackles

Consolidation (lobar pneumonia, pulmonary edema)