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Flashcards in Physiology Deck (49):
1

Air that can be breathed in after notmal inspiration

Inspiratory reserve volume

2

Air that moves into lung with each quiet breath

Tidal volume (~500mL)

3

Ait that can be breathed out after normal expiration

Expiratory Reserve Volume

4

Air in lung after max expiration; cannot be measured by spirometry

Residual volume

5

TV + IRV

Inspiratory Capacity

6

Volume in lungs after normal expiration

Functional residual capacity

7

Maximal volume of gas that can be expired after a maximal inspiration

Vital capacity

8

Volume of air in lungs after maximal inspiration

Total Lung capacity

9

Anatomic dead space of conducting airways + functional dead space in alveoli; volume of air not apart of gas exchange

Physiologic Dead Space

10

Largest contributor of physiologic dead space

Apex of Lung

11

Total Volume of gas entering the lung per minute

Minute ventilation

12

Volume of gas per unit time that reaches the alveoli

Alveolar ventilation

13

When inward pull of lung is balanced by outward pull of chest wall, and systemic pressure is atmospheric

FRC

14

When airway and alveolar pressures are 0; intrapleural pressure is negative

FRC

15

Change in lung volume for a given change in pressure

Compliance

16

Causes of decreased lung compliance

Pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia, pulmonary edema

17

Causes of increased lung compliance

Emphysema and aging

18

Taut/tense Hb

Low affinity for oxygen (tissues)

19

Relaxed Hb

High affinity for oxygen (lungs)

20

Hb biochemistry

Positive cooperativity and negative allostery

21

Right Shift

Increase chloride, H, CO2, 2,3-BPG, temperature, taut Hb
leads to increases O2 unloading

22

Left Shift

Relaxed, higher affinity for oxygen; Fetal Hb (b/c lower affinity for 2,3BPG than adult); CO poisoning

23

Oxidized form of Hb (3+)

Methemoglobin; decreased affinity for O2

24

Cyanosis and chocolate colored blood

Methemoglobin

25

Tx of cyanide poisoning

Nitrates first to oxidize Hb to Met-Hb which binds cyanide; use thiosulfate to bind cyanide making thiosulfate which is renally excreted

26

Carbon Monoxide

200x greater affinity for Hb than oxygen

27

Cause of sigmoidal shape of Hb dissociation curve

Positive cooperativity

28

Why myoglobin curve is not sigmoidal

No positive cooperativity; monomer not a tetramer like Hb

29

Low resistance, high compliance system

Pulmonary circulation

30

Consequence of pHTN

cor pulmonale; right ventricular failure (JVD, edema, hepatomegaly)

31

Diffusion Limited

emphysema and fibrosis; Gas does not equilibriate by the time blood reaches the end of capillary

32

Hypoxemia with normal A-a gradient

high altitude and hypoventilation

33

Hypoxemia with increased A-a gradient

V/Q mismatch; diffusion limitation; right-to-left shunt

34

V/Q at apex of lung

3; wasted ventilation

35

V/Q at base of lung

0.6; wasted perfusion

36

PA > Pa > Pv

Apex of lung; decrease ventilation and very decreased perfusion causing increase in V/Q ratio

37

Pa > PA > Pv

Zone 2; middle of lung

38

Pa > Pv > PA

Base of lung; increase in ventilation but very increased perfusion causing a decrease in V/Q ratio even though increase in blod ventilation and perfusion overall

39

V/Q = 0

airway obstruction (shunt); 100% oxygen does not improve pO2

40

V/Q = infinity

blood flow obstruction (physiologic dead space); 100% oxygen does improve pO2

41

Highest CO2 transportation

HCO3- (90%)

42

Carbaminohemoglobin

HbCO2; CO2 bound to Hb at the N-terminus
CO2 favors taut Hb; (5%)

43

Dissolved CO2

5% CO2 travels to lungs in this form

44

Haldane effect

Oxygenation leads to H+ dissociation, shifting equilibrium to CO2 formation; CO2 released from RBCs in lungs

45

Bohr Effect

Increased H+ from tissue metabolism shifts curve to the right; unloads O2 to tissues

46

Ventilatino response to high altitude

Chronic increase ventilation

47

Cellular changed in response to high altitude

increase 2,3-BPG to release more oxygen; increase mitochondria; increase erythropoietin an dincrease renal excretion of HCO3-

48

PaO2 and PaCO2 in response to exercise

NO CHANGE; only change is in the venous system

49

V/Q ratio during exercise

from apex to base; more uniform because increase ventilation rate to meet O2 demand