Patient Care Fall 14/15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Patient Care Fall 14/15 Deck (113)
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1

What's the urinary meatus?

External urethral orifice, opening of urethra on body surface through which urine is discharged

2

How is the small intestine attached to the abdomen

Mesentary posterior wall

3

Slowness of the heartbeat as evidenced by slowing of the pulse rate to less that 60 bpm

Bradycardia

4

Profuse sweating

Diaphoresis

5

The normal pulse rate for resting adult

60-100 bpm

6

Normal pulse rate for a child under 10

70-120 bpm

7

Absence of gas from part or the whole lungs as a result of failure of expansion IR reabsorption of gas from alveoli

Atelectasis

8

Vital signs consist of?

Heart beat, blood pressure, body temperature, respiratory rate

9

How do you obtain tympanic temperature?

Place electronic thermometer in ear and wait three minutes

10

When is a pt said to be in tachypnea?

Greater than 20 breaths per minute

11

Oral body temperature ranges from?

97.7-99.5 F
or
36.5 to 37.5 C

12

Normal respirations in adult?

12-20

13

Normal respirations in children under 10

20-30

14

Normal respirations in infants

30-60

15

How to deal with substance abusers?

Asses capabilities, establish communication, wait to work until cooperative, restrain if necessary

15

Reduction of oxygen supply to tissue

Hypoxia

16

Average body temperature in fahrenheight and Celsius

98.6 F and 37C

17

What should a healthy adults blood pressure read?

120/80 mmHg

18

Exams that use oil based contrast

Bronchography, sialography, dacryocystography, lymphography

19

Viscosity is influenced by

Concentration and size of the molecule

20

What's demonstrated on left lateral decubitus

Up lateral side of ascending colon and medial side of descending colon when colon is inflated with air

21

What is demonstrated on right lateral decubitus

Up medial side of ascending colon and lateral side of descending colon with colon inflated with air

22

What's the CR for AP axial sigmoid

30-40 degrees cephalic MSP and 2 inches below ASIS

23

Ballooning of lower end of ureter into bladder

Ureterocele

24

Inflammation of bladder

Cystitis

25

CR for PA axial sigmoid

30-40 caudal MSP and ASIS

26

CR for nephrotogram

Centered to IR at level of angle of ribs

27

Abnormal concentration of mineral salts/stone

Calcuolous

28

Abnormal connection between 2 internal organs or between an organ and body structure

Fistula

29

Inflammation of kidney and renal pelvis

Pyelonephritis

30

Dissension of renal pelvis and calyces with urine

Hydronephrosis

31

What and where is the hilum? (Abdominal)

Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, and ureters connect or attach to kidneys
-medial border

32

Level of kidneys and where each lies I'm different body habitus

Sthenic-T12-L3
asthenic- lower
Hypersthenic-higher

33

Kidney movement with respiration and from supine to upright

Respiration-about 1 inch
More Aprox 2" from supine to upright

34

CR for AP oblique projection

Perpendicular to crest and 1-2" lateral to midline of elevated side

35

CR for PA oblique projections

Perpendicular to crest and 2" lateral from MSP on elevated side

36

What are the primary mechanisms that maintain homeostasis?

Vital signs

37

What are the sacred seven?

Localization
Chronology
Quality
Severity
Onset
Aggregating of alleviating factors
Associated manifestations

38

CR right lateral UGI upright and recumbent

Recumbent-centered to IR level at L1-L2 (1-2 above lower rib margin)

Upright- centered to IR level of L3

39

Type of catheter used on enteroclysis exams

Bibaor or sellinktube stiff guide wire

40

PA Oblique RAO image demonstrates

Right colic flexure, ascending colon, sigmoid colon

41

Where IR is centered for AP UGI

Level midway between xiphoid and lower rib margin

42

The degree of rotation for PA oblique UGI

40-70

43

Supine and prone positions of the stomach demonstrate

Supine-barium filled stomach and visualization of retrogastric portions of duodenum and jejunum
Prone- compress abdominal contents

44

How each kidney is positioned when rotated 30 degrees

Lower kidney is perpendicular and upper kidney lies parallel to IR

45

What's the purpose of the ARRT

Encourage study and evaluating the standards of Radiologic Technology. Examining and certifying. Eligible candidates and periodically publishing a listing of registrants

46

Diagnostic agents that are instilled into body offices or injected into the vascular system, joints, ducts to enhance subject contrast in anatomic areas where low contrast exist

Contrast media

47

Death ranking of nosocomial infections in the US

8th

48

Normal creatnine and bun levels

Creatine .6-1.5mg

Bun- 8-25 mg

49

Description of the character of symptoms

Color, quality and consistency of blood or other substances

Quality

50

When do you use contact precautions

When caring for patients infected with virolent pathogens that spread by direct contact with the patient or indirect contact with a contaminated object

51

Standard precautions incorporates

Features of both body fluid precautions and body substance isolation

52

Percent of patients that acquire nosocomial infections

5%

53

6 steps for establishment of infectious disease

Encounter
Entry
Spread
Multiplication
Damage
Outcome

54

What is best demonstrated on AP oblique LPO

Right colic flexure, ascending colon, sigmoid

55

Best demonstrated on AP oblique RPO

Left colic flexure, descending colon

56

CR for AP oblique positions

Perpendicular to crest and 2 inches lateral to midline of elevated side

57

Stabilizing agents added to barium

Sodium carbonate
Sodium citrate

58

IVP CR for AP projection

Perpendicular at level of crests

59

IVP CR for separate bladder

2-3 above symphysis pubis

60

CR for left lateral rectum

Perpendicular to MCP and ASIS

61

Where IR is centered for left lateral rectum

At ASIS

62

CR for cross table lateral large intestine

Horizontal tube perpendicular to MCP and crest

63

CR for PA large intestine

Perpendicular to MSP and crest

64

IR centered for PA UGI projection

MSP center to IR
IR 1-2 above angle of ribs

65

Used as incubator for premature infants. Provides controlled temperature and humidity and an oxygen supply

Isolette

66

Resembling serum, having thin watery constitution; body fluids that are typically pale yellow, benign nature, that fill inside of body cavities

Serous

67

Resulting from activities of physician

Iatrogenic

68

Order of Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Physiological
Safety
Belongingness and love
Esteem
Know and understand
Aesthetic
Self actualization
Transcendence

69

Object that can harbor pathogenic micro organisms and transmit infection

Fomite

70

Alternate or passive host or carrier that harbors pathogenic organisms, without injury to self, and serves as source from which other individuals can be infected

Reservoir

71

Viral particle that starts infection

Virion

72

Measure of the total numbers of particles in solution per kilogram of water

Osmolality

73

What is demonstrated on AP large intestine

Entire colon with pt supine

74

Pt position for AP axial sigmoid

Supine

75

What is best demonstrated on AP axial sigmoid

Rectrosigmoid

76

How to make sure patient holds still on AP oblique projections

Use sponge

77

Where to center IR at for lateral decubitus image

Crest

78

IR placement for upright LI

Perpendicular to MSP and 1-2 in below crest

79

Why cross table LI is done last?

Tip needs to be removed to see rectum

80

What's best demonstrated on a cross table lateral? Li

Up posterior portion of colon

81

Patient position of cross table lateral

Prone right or left side against the IR

82

Marker placement for decubitus

Top of IR

83

Function of air medium

Distend lumen of bowel

84

Describe 3 steps of 2 stage double contrast BE

Fill colon with barium. Pt evacuates barium and returns to table. Air is injected into colon and radiographs are obtained

85

Most important factor of BE exam

Colon must be clean

86

What must be done to include entire colon on AP/PA and how IR is placed

2 images crosswise

87

What type of barium is used and why this specific barium is used?

Hugh density barium sulfate. Absorb greater percentage of radiation similar to older thick barium products

88

Length of BE tubing

Approximately 6 feet

89

What PA demonstrates

Entire colon with patient in prone position

90

What is best demonstrated on PA axial sigmoid

Rectrosigmoid area

91

Degree of obliquity for oblique projections LI

35-45

92

What must be centered to grid or table on left lateral rectum

MCP centered to table

93

Purpose of flexing patients knees on left lateral rectum

Provides support

94

What is demonstrated on left lateral rectum

Rectum and distal portion of sigmoid

95

What portions of colon may not be included on left lateral rectum?

Superior portion

96

What contrast is used if perforation or leak is suspected?

Water soluble iodinated contrast

97

Patient Prep for LI

Dietary restrictions, bowel cleansing enema, laxatives, npo after light evening meal

98

Purpose of squeezable balloon inflater

Helps pt to hold catheter in place

99

What's the enema bag capacity

3 quarts (3000ml)

100

Method used for filling large intestine

Retrograde filling

101

Warm BE temperature range

85-90 degrees

102

Success of be depends on

Pt cooperation

103

Purpose of relaxing abdominal muscles throughout the BE exam

Prevent intraabdominal pressure, cramping, and colon spasms

104

Purpose of deep oral breathing

Reduces incidence of spasms and cramping

105

Patient position for insertion of enema tip

Sims

106

Height enema bag is placed

No more than 24 inches above the anus

107

How to get air out of tubing

Run barium into the sink

108

What respiration phase tip should be inserted on and why

Expiration abdominal muscles and sphincter are mOre relaxed

109

How far tip should be inserted

No more than 4"

110

Respiration phase for BE images

Suspended

111

How lining is coated on double contrast be

Pt slowly rotates 360 degrees

112

2 methods of examining large intestine

Single contrast and double contrast