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Flashcards in physics chapter 2 test Deck (31)
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The word atom comes from?

The Greek word "atomos" meaning indivisible.

1

What was Democritus Theory?

◾️First earliest theory
◾️All things were made of tiny, indivisible structures called atoms
◾️Atoms were indestructible and different in size and shape
◾️theorized that the nature of the object depended on its atoms (sweet=smooth atoms, bitter= sharp atoms)

2

What was John Dalton's theory?

◾️elements combined to form compounds
◾️all elements compose of tiny indivisible and indestructible particles
◾️atoms were unique to each element in size and mass
◾️chemical reaction was a rearrangement of atoms
◾️chemist who developed the theory that elements combined in definite proportions to form compounds

3

Dmitri Mendeleev's work

Organized known elements into the periodic table in order of increasing atomic mass and having similar properties

4

What was Joseph John Thomson's discovery?

Electrons

5

What was Niels Bohr's work?

Refined Rutherford's work bringing us to the theory and model of the atom we are familiar with

6

What is the modern atomic theory?

The atom is the building block of matter. Bohr's theory describes an atom as having three fundamental properties

7

Each atom has a nucleus... What is the nucleus made of?

Protons and neutrons

8

Describe a proton

Positively charged and has a mass of 1.673x10^-27 kg

9

Describe the neutron

No electrical charge and a mass of 1.675x10^-27

10

What's the difference between the proton and neutron?

Proton has a positive charge and a neutron has no electrical charge. Also slight mass difference

11

Describe the electron

Negative electrical charge and a mass of 9.109x10^-31

12

Know the technical aspect behind a neutral atom?

Equal number of protons and neutrons. It has no electrical charge since the positive and negative will cancel eachother out.

13

What happens if the balance of an atom is disrupted?

Charge becomes positive if there are more protons or negative if there are more electrons. The atom will either gain or lose an electron

14

What is a negative ion?

The gaining of an extra electron making a negative electrical charge

15

What is a positive ion

Atom losing an electron. The positive charge will out number the negative charge creating a net positive charge

16

What is binding energy

A force of attraction that holds the nucleus of an atom together and holds electrons in orbit around the nucleus

17

What is binding energy a measure of?

The amount of energy necessary to split an Atom

18

What are electron shells

Defined energy level at a distance from the nucleus within which electrons orbit. This describes a sphere around the nucleus

19

How are the electron shells labeled

K(nearest nucleus) moving outward with L M N O P and so on

20

How does the electron shell fill?

K shell outward with outermost shells not necessarily filling completely

21

How many electrons can the 1st shell hold?

2

22

Which shell has the greatest binding energy?

K

23

What's a valence shell?

Outermost shell of an atom

24

What's an atomic number?

Number of protons it contains in its nucleus

25

What's the atomic mass number

The number of protons and neutrons an atom has in its nucleus

26

What's a molecule?

Formed when two or more atoms join together
◾️fixed ratios of each type of constituent atom resulting in the predictable mass

27

What's a compound

Molecule that contains at least two different elements. Combination of elements in definite proportions

28

What are 2 primary ways atoms bond?

Ionic and covalent bond

29

What is ionic bonding based upon

The attraction of opposite charges

30

What is covalent bonding based on?

Two atoms sharing electrons that then orbit the nuclei