proceduresIII Test 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in proceduresIII Test 1 Deck (78)
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0

How many vertebra do we have early in life?

33

1

How many are "true" vertebrae?

24

2

Which vertebrae are "false"? Why are they considered false vertebrae?

Sacral and coccygeal segments. They are fixed vertebrae. Sacral fuse into the sacrum and coccygeal form the coccyx.

3

The vertebral column is the ______ of the skeleton.

Central axis

4

What are the three functions of the vertebral column?

◾️encloses and protects spinal cord
◾️supports the trunk and skull
◾️provides muscle attachment

5

Lordotic curves _____ anteriorly.

Convex

6

Examples of lordotic curves?

Cervical and lumbar

7

Kyphotic curves ______ anteriorly.

Concave

8

Examples of Kyphotic curves.

Thoracic and pelvic

9

______ convex posteriorly.

Kyphotic

10

______ curves concave posteriorly.

Lordotic

11

What is a primary curve?

Present at birth

12

What parts of the spine are primary curves?

Thoracic and pelvic

13

What's a secondary curve?

Curve that develops after birth as child grows and develops.

14

Which parts of the spine are secondary curves?

Lumbar and cervical

15

What is scoliosis?

Lateral curvature of the spine

16

What is kyphosis?

Posterior convexity of thoracic curve

17

What is lordosis?

Increase in anterior convexity of cervical or lumbar spines

18

What lies in between vertebral bodies?

Vertebral disks

19

What is the purpose of intervertebral disks?

Function as cushions

20

The center of each intervertebral disk is called:

Nucleus pulposus

21

What is a herniated disk/slipped disk?

The nucleus pulposus rupturing into vertebral canal

22

What causes slipped disks?

Improper body mechanics

23

Each typical vertebra has 2 main parts, what are they?

Body and vertebral arch

24

What parts of the vertebrae create the vertebral foramen?

Body and vertebral arch

25

What passes through the vertebral foramen?

Spinal cord

26

What special features do the Cervical vertebrae have? 2 answers

◾️Transverse foramina located on transverse process
◾️bifid spinous process except c7

27

What special feature do the thoracic vertebrae have?

Costal facets on posterior/lateral for articulation with head of ribs facet on transverse process for articulation with tubercle of ribs.

28

What special feature do the lumbar vertebrae have?

◾️pars interarticularis
◾️transverse process small than tspine

29

Where are the transverse processes located in relationship to the body of the vertebra?

They project laterally and a little posteriorly from junction of lamina and pedicles

30

What two pieces of anatomy create the transverse process? (pay lots of taxes)

Pedicles and lamina

31

Spinous process project how from the body of the vertebra?

Posteriorly and medially from pedicle

32

What anatomy creates the spinous process?(like lots of snacks)

Lamina and lamina

33

How many cervical vertebrae are there?

7

34

How many thoracic vertebrae are there?

12

35

How many lumbar vertebrae are there?

5

36

Another name for C1

Atlas

37

Another name for C2

Axis

38

Which three vertebrae are considered atypical?

C1 c2 C7

39

Which cervical vertebrae does NOT have a body?

C1

40

Another name for C7.

Vertebra promiens

41

Why is C7 also known as vertebra promiens?

Because of its long prominent spinous process

42

Which cervical vertebra has lateral masses?

Atlas/C1

43

Which cervical vertebra has the dens?

C2/axis

44

What joint is created by C1 and the occipital bone?

Atlantooccipital

45

What is the name of the articulation between the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae and the head of the ribs?

Costovertebral

46

What is the articulation between the transverse process of the thoracic vertebra and tubercle of the rib?

Costotransverse

47

The vertebral arch is formed by 2 _______ and 2 ______.

Pedicles and laminae

48

The pedicles of the vertebra are located how in relationship to the body of the vertebra?

Project posterior part of body

49

The concave regions of pedicles are called?

Vertebral notches

50

Vertebral notches articulate with one another to form the?

Intervertebral foramina

51

What is spina bifida?

Congenital condition in which laminar fail to fuse

52

Superior and inferior articular processes come together to create what joint?

Zygapophyseal

53

What is special about the lumbar vertebra transverse process?

Transverse processes are smaller than tspine

54

What is the mammillary process of the lumbar vertebra?

Smoothly rounded projection on the back of each superior articulating process

55

What is the accessory process of the lumbar vertebra?

Back of the root of the transverse process

56

What is spondylosis?

Bony defect of pars interarticularis, May be unilateral or bilateral

57

What is spondylotlisthesis?

Anterior displacement of one vertebra over another

58

What vertebral region does spondylotlisthesis occur in?

Lumbar

59

What is pars interarticularis?

Part of laminae between articular processes

60

How many segments comprise the sacrum?

5

61

Where is the sacrum located?

Wedged between iliac bones of the pelvis

62

Is there a difference in male and female sacral curves?

Yes

63

Which sacral curve is longer and more vertical?

Male

64

Which sacral curve is more acutely curved and oblique?

Female

65

What part of the sacrum will touch L5

Base

66

The ridge the superior/anterior margin, near the base of the sacrum is called?

Sacral promontory

67

What is the sacral canal?

Continuation of vertebral canal that's part of the sacrum

68

How many pairs of sacral foramina are there?

4

69

What are sacral foramina for?

Passage of sacral nerves and blood vessels

70

Where is the ala of the sacrum located?

Each side of sacral base

71

What is the purpose of the auricular surface?

Large articular process for articulation with similarly shaped processes on the iliac bones of the pelvis

72

The apex of the sacrum has a facet for articulation with what structures?

Coccyx and sacral cornua

73

⏩What are sacral cornua? What are coccygeal cornua?

Process projected posteriorly on the sacrum

74

How many segments make up the coccyx?

3-5 normally 4

75

Does the coccyx have an apex and a base?

Yes

76

What does the superior articular process of the sacrum articulate with?

Inferior articular process of last lumbar vertebra.

77

Remember there will be an entire spine diagram as part of the test

◾️anatomy
◾️joints