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Flashcards in Perceiving Deck (18):

what is selective perception?

-selectively narrow our perception, ignoring certain aspects on environment and focusing on others
-may discount relevant info and focus on less relevant info
-explains how we can see same thing so differently


describe the attribution theory

1. we observe someone in action
2. we want to attribute it to either:
-something about person's traits or dispositions (INTERNAL attribution)
-something about circumstance (EXTERNAL attribution)


we often underestimate ____ factors and overestimate ___ factors

external, internal


what is the similar-to-me effect?

judging others who are more similar to you in a more positive light than those who aren't


describe the halo effect (three things)

-form overall impression based on one characteristic --> positive or negative
-because good at X, also good at Y,Z
-no mixed performance


what are two ways in which we take cognitive shortcuts?

1. drawing on stereotypes (conscious or unconscious)
2. implicit biases (unconscious)


___ ____ affects the behaviour of people who fit in the categories and relates to negative stereotypes

stereotype threat


what are the 3 components of the stereotype threat

1. when people are in situations where they run the risk of fulfilling a negative stereotype
2. this possibility is experienced as threat, creates stress
3. increases possibility of fulfilling negative stereotype


what is the self-fulfilling prophecy?

once an expectation is set we act in ways that are consistent with it


what is the phenomenon whereby higher expectations lead to an increase in performance

Pygmalion effect


what is the psychological phenomenon in which lower expectations placed upon individuals either by supervisors or the individual themselves lead to poorer performance by the individual

Golem effect


Pygmalion and Golem effect are associated with which prophecy?

self-fulfilling prophecy


what is the immediate connection between two things?

implicit association


describe implicit association

-accurate predictor of how we act in spontaneous situations
-no justification or decision-making required
-create bias in our perceptions of others and opportunities


describe blink or rapid cognition

-adaptive unconscious
-impressions and preferences almost instantaneous
-our minds take about 2 secs to form conclusions

positive=fact driven
negative=implicit associations


what is a social system, society or organization in which people advance b/c of their abilities and not b/c of social position or money?



operant conditioning vs observational learning

operant: a person's behavior is affected by reinforcements and punishments that the person experiences him or her self. The person behaves a certain way and then observes the responses of others to that behavior. The other people's responses help to shape the first person's behavior.

observational learning: a person's behavior is influenced by what happens to other people when they behave in certain ways. The person who is learning does so by seeing responses are elicited by others' behaviors. The person then bases his or her behavior on the lessons learned by watching what happens to the other people


describe solutions to implicit associations (8)

1. remove identifying data (gender, race, etc)
2. collect as much quantitative data as possible
3. require adequate representation on short lists
4. teach decision makers about it
5. adjust for known biases
6. examine all systems and procedures to unintended bias
7. transparency and monitoring
8. hold people accountable for results