Organizational Design and Structure Flashcards Preview

MGCR 222 > Organizational Design and Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organizational Design and Structure Deck (24):

describe a mechanistic structure

-industrial revolution led from craft, family models to mass production
-scientific management
-Frederick Taylor --> increased production, deskilled and alienated workers, led to quality and innovation problems


describe scientific management within a mechanistic structure

-attempt to separate design of work from its execution
-break down tasks to small, specialized components
-eliminate wasted motion, effort, interaction


what structure is the opposite of mechanistic?



describe a matrix organization

-have departments working together
-moves info more quickly
-report to team and function


what are the two ways to divide labour?

1. specialists: narrow experience/knowledge of small number of tasks
2. generalists: variety of experience/knowledge


how do we group jobs?

function, geography, process, product/division


describe span of control

number of subordinates managed
-narrow or wide


describe a narrow span of control

-expensive, more managers; makes vertical communication more complicated; discourages autonomy; encourages tight supervision


describe a wide span of control

-less supervision, employees have more responsibility; forces managers to develop clear goals and policies; managers may become overloaded


describe high and low formalization

high: rules, protocols, operating procedures
low: reliance on discretion, emerging routines


when is a bureaucracy good?

-precision is important
-large labour force willing to work
-stable market
-task straightforward
-producing same product over and over
-human "machines" compliant


compare a mechanistic and organic structure

-high specialization
-rigid departmentalization
-clear chain of command
-narrow span of control
-high formalization

-cross-functional teams
-cross-hierarchical teams
-free flow of info
-wide span of control
-low formalization


describe the order of structures from mechanistic to organic

1. modern/machine bureaucracy
2. professional bureaucracy
3. simple structure
4. adhocracy
5. virtual


describe contingency theory

-organizations must balance internal needs and must continuously adapt to environment
-organizations designed in relation to task and environment
-managers continuously trying to align organization with these considerations


describe a matrix structure

-practice of managing individuals with more than one reporting line
-reporting relationships set up in grid/matrix instead of traditional hierarchy
-employees have dual reporting relationships


describe a machine bureaucracy

-tasks simple, environment stable
-slow in adapting to new circumstances
-high centralization
-for firms that are production or efficiency-driven


what is a divisional bureaucracy?

-semi-autonomous units with characteristics of the machine bureaucracy (ex. govn't with series of agencies)


describe a professional bureaucracy

-tasks complicated
-environment stable
-one side of organization run according to bureaucratic principles, other side run according to professional principles
-allows greater autonomy to professionals

ex. university, hospital


describe a simple structure

-tasks not too complex
-unstable environment
-very informal and flexible but highly centralized
-ideal to achieve quick changes and maneuvers

ex. CEO with group of support staff and group of operators


describe an adhocracy

-complex tasks and unstable environment
-project teams that come together to perform a task and disappear once task is over


what is the scalar chain (chain of command?)

straight chain of command that extends unbroken from ultimate officer to lowest ranks


describe the classical management theory

-idea that management is process of planning, organization, command, control, coordination
-designing organizations like a machine
-precisely defined jobs organized in hierarchical manner through precisely defined lines of command


which theory says that humans should fit the requirements of a mechanical organization?

classical management theory


what are the 5 steps for scientific management?

1. shift all responsibility for organization of work from worker to manager
2. use scientific methods to determine most efficient way of doing work
3. select best person to perform job thus designed
4. train worker to do work efficiently
5. monitor worker performance