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Flashcards in Pharm 2 - Extra Cards for Final Deck (46)
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What is the class and MOA of Hydrocortisone?

Class: Glucocorticoid/corticosteroid
MOA: Anti-inflammatory. Affects gene transcription.


What are some indications for topical steroid use?

Atopic dermatitis
Contact/allergic dermatitis
Other autoimmune dz with skin involvement like bullous pemphigus, SLE, sarcoidosis


What are some potential side effects of topical steroids? Are they absorbed systemically through the skin?

Local: skin atrophy and striae, telengectasias, purpura, acneform lesions, overgrowth of fungus and bacteria.
Yes, they are absorbed systemically. Possible systemic effects: suppression of HPA axis, increased risk for hyperglycemia, osteoporosis and osteonecrosis.


What are retinoids, and what do they modify?

Natural compounds and synthetic derivatives of retinol that exhibit vitamin A activity.
Modify cellular proliferation and differentiation, immune fxn, inflammation, sebum production.


What are some diseases that are responsive to retinoids?

Cystic and papular acne
Basal and squamous cell cancers
Actinic keratosis
Cutaneous aging


In what class of drugs is Tretinoin/Retin A?

Vitamin A derivative


What is the MOA of Tretinoin/Retin A?

Reduction of hyperkeratinization (which causes clogged pores - initial lesion in acne). Also increases epidermal thickness and dermal collagen synthesis.


What are some side effects of Tretinoin/Retin A?

Erythema, peeling, burning, stinging, photosensitivity.


In what class of drugs is Isoretinoin/Accutane?

Vitamin A derivative


What is the MOA of Isoretinoin/Accutane?

Reduction of hyperkeratinization, reduction of sebaceous gland number and sebum production, reduction of Propionibacterium acnes.


What pregnancy category is Isoretinoin/Accutane?

Category X


What symptoms are included in the package insert warning for Isoretinoin/Accutane?

Depression, psychosis, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide.


Phototherapy vs. photochemotherapy

Phototherapy: Use of electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation (usually UVA and UVB) as a therapeutic agent.
Photochemotherapy: Phototherapy with the inclusion of a chemical agent such as Psoralen.


What does "PUVA" stand for and what is the MOA?

PUVA = "Psoralen and UltraViolet A." Patient is first given Psoralen and then exposed to UVA light.
MOA not fully understood. Evidence that the therapy induces an anti-inflammatory effect through immunosuppression and inhibition of DNA synthesis.


What is PUVA therapy used for?

Treatment of psoriasis.

Has also been proven effective for tx of vitiligo by stimulating melanocyte proliferation.
May also be used for T-cell lymphoma, alopecia areata, and urticaria pigmentosa.


What are the side effects of PUVA?

Acute: nausea, painful erythema, blistering.
Long-term: Increased risk of skin cancer.
Chronic: Advanced skin aging, actinic keratosis.