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Flashcards in Pharm1 - Pharm1 Deck (57)
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1

MOA mannitol

creates an osmotic diuresis because it can't leave the tubule inhibits Na and Cl reabsorption in PC and ascendin loop

2

clinical uses of mannitol

to decrease intractranial pressure or intraocular pressure through volume depletion

3

side effects of mannitol

can cause pulmonary edema d/t extracellular volume expansion, pulling water out of cells hypernatremia

4

contraindications of mannitol

CHF pulmonary edema anuria severe renal failure severe dehydration

5

how is mannitol administered?

parenterally (poorly absorbed PO)

6

MOA spironolactone

K sparing diuretic, antagonizes aldosterone in the DCT, inhibiting Na reabsorption

7

what effect does spironolactone have on Ca

decreases serum Ca levels by directly inhibiting its transport in the DCT

8

clinical uses of spironolactone

HTN pulmonary edema edema from CHF or cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome primary hyperaldosteronism

9

side effects of spironolactone

gynecomastia (and other anti-androgenic effects) hyperkalemia hyponatremia hypochlroemic acidosis (blocks aldosterone's effect on Na/H antiporter)

10

MOA amiloride

K sparing diuretic, directly inhibits Na reabsorption, independent of aldosterone increased Ca reabsorption

11

uses of amiloride

treats ca stones

12

differences between amiloride and triamterene?

MOA similar, but triampterene has shorter t1/2

13

MOA furosemide

loop diuretic, blocking NKCC increased urinary excretion of K, Mg, Ca increases RBF without altering GFR

14

clinical uses for furosemide

edema to increase urine output in ARF (although it doesn't alter the course of ARF) hypercalcemia hyperkalemia

15

side effects of furosemide

K wasting metabolic alkalosis Mg depletion ototoxicity hyperuricemia

16

why does hyperuricemia result from furosemide use?

increases urate reabsorption d/t increased proximal Na reabsorption

17

contraindication of furosemide

sulfa allergy

18

which is the only loop diuretic without a sulfa group?

ethacrynic acid

19

MOA HCTZ?

block NaCl transport at the DCT Enhanced Ca reaborption (because Na and Ca compete for ATP dependent reabsorption at DCT)

20

clinical uses of HCTZ?

HTN edema DI (by inducing mild volume depletion) to stop recurrent renal calcium stones

21

contraindication of HCTZ

sulfa allergy

22

side effects of HCTZ

hyperglycemia hyperlipidemia hyperuricemia hypercalcemia melabolic alkalosis Mg depletion

23

MOA acetazolamide

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor so it inhibits the reabsorption of HCO3- in PCT also CA is in ciliary body of eye and in choroid plexus cells, so it decreases aqueous humor production and increases CSF production

24

uses for acetazolamide

acute altitude sickness glaucoma treatment for alkalosis facilitate eexcretion of weak acid (as seen in tumor lysis syndrome)

25

side effects of acetazolamide

encephalopathy (from decreased excretion of NH3 in urine) renal stones b/c calcium phosphate is less soluble in alkaline urine hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis

26

contraindications of acetazolamide

sulfa allergy hepatic or renal dz hyperchloremic acidosis hyponatremia hypokalemia

27

what effect does furosemide have on the following serum levels: K HCO3 Ca Mg urate

decreased increased decreased decreased increased

28

what effect does thiazide have on the following serum levels: K HCO3 Ca Mg urate

decrease increase increased decreased increased

29

what effect does spironolactone have on the following serum levels: K HCO3 Ca Mg urate

increased decreased decreased none none

30

what effect does amiloride have on the following serum levels: K HCO3 Ca Mg urate

increased decreased increased none none