pharmacology: anticonvulsants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in pharmacology: anticonvulsants Deck (14):
1

phenytoin mechanism and clinical use

blocks axonal Na+ channels in their inactivated states preventing seizure propagation
clinical: everything but absence seizure

2

phenytoin pharmacokinetics

nonlinear kinetics (reach toxic doses quicker)
induction of cytochrome P450
zero-order kinetic of elimination

3

phenytoin side effects

1. CNS depression
2. osteomalacia (decreased vit D = hypocalcemia)
3. megaloblastic anemia (decreased folate)
4. aplastic anemia (hypersensitivity reaction)
5. GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA!
6. HIRSUTISM!
7. teratogenicity (cleft lip and palate)

4

carbamazepine mechanism and clinical uses

blocks axonal Na+ channels in their inactivated states preventing seizure propagation
clinical: everything but absence seizure, DOC for trigeminal neuralgia*****, bipolar disorder

5

pharmacokinetics carbamazepine

induces cytochrome P450 (including its own metabolism)

6

carbamazepine side effects

1. CNS depression
2. osteomalacia
3. megalobalstic anemia
4. aplastic anemia
5. EXFOLIATIVE DERMATITIS
6. INCREASED ADH SECRETION
7. teratogenicity (cleft lip and palate and spina bifida)

7

valproic acid mechanism

1. blocks axonal Na+ channels in their inactivated states preventing seizure propagation
2. inhibition of GABA transminase (increased GABA = CNS depression)
3. blockade of T-type Ca channels

8

valproic acid uses

all seizure states including absence!
mania of bipolar disorders
migraine prophylaxis

9

valproic acid pharmacokinetics

INHIBITS cytochrome p450

10

valproic acid side effects

1. hepatotoxicity
2. thrombocytopenia
3. pancreatitis
4. alopecia
5. teratogenecity (spina bifida)

11

ethosuximide mechanism

blockade of T-type ca channels in thalamic neurons

12

what is the DOC for absence seizures?

ethosuximide

13

which drug is the best choice when taking oral contraceptives?

valproic acid

14

what are the drugs used for anticonvulsants?

carbamazepine, phenytoin, ethosuximide, valproic acid, diazepam, lorazepam