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Flashcards in path inflammatory mediators Deck (32):
1

NF-kB

nuclear transcription factor that activates immune response genes leading to production of multiple immune mediators

2

CD14

recognizes lipopolysaccharide on gram - bacteria

3

arachidonic acid metabolites

cyclooxygenase (produces PG) and 5-lipoxygenase (produces LT)

4

what does cyclooxygenase produce?

PGI2, PGD2, PGE2 - all do vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
PGE2 also pain and fever

5

what does 5-lipoxygenase produce?

leukotrienes
LTB4 attracts and activates neutrophils
LTC4, LTD4, LTE4 mediate vasoconstriction, bronchospasm, increased vascular permeability

6

what attracts and activates neutrophils?

LTB4, c5a, IL8, bacterial products

7

what activates mast cells?

trauma, c3a and c5a, cross-linking of IgE by antigen

8

c5a vs c3b

c5a = chemotactic for neutrophils (along with bacterial products, LTB4, IL8)
c3b = opsonin for phagocytosis

9

hageman factor

factor XII
activates: 1. coagulation and fibrinolytic systems (DIC)
2. complement
3. kinin system (leading to bradykinin)

10

bradykinin

mediates vasodilation and increased vascular permeability as well as pain

11

mediators of redness and warmth (rubor and calor)

histamine (primary), prostaglandins, bradykinin

12

what mediates swelling?

histamine and tissue damage

13

what mediates pain?

bradykinin and PGE2

14

what mediates fever?

IL-1 and TNF (increase cyclooxygenase activity in perivascular cells of hypothalamus)

15

weibel palade bodies - what does it release and what is it mediated by?

releases P-selectin and vWF
mediated by histamine

16

e-selectin induced by what?

TNF and IL-1

17

cellular adhesion molecules upregulated by what?

TNF and IL-1

18

integrins on leukocytes regulated by what?

c5a and LTB4

19

CD18

integrins (leukocyte adhesion)

20

leukocyte adhesion deficiency

delayed separation of umbilical cord, increased circulating neutrophils, recurrent bacterial infections, lack of pus formation

21

chediak higashi syndrome

protein trafficking defect causing impair phagolysosome formation**, neutropenia, giant granules in leukocytes, defective primary hemostasis, albinism, peripheral neuropathy

22

O2 dependent killing enzymes

NADPH oxidase: O2--> O2- (oxidative burst)
superoxide dismutase: O2 --> H2O2
myeloperoxidase: H2O2 --> HOCl

23

antiinflammatory cytokines

IL-10 and TGF-beta

24

IL-8

from macrophages - recruits additional neutrophils (continues acute inflammation)

25

IFN-gamma

secreted from TH1 subset of CD4
activates macrophage, promotes B-cell class switching to IgG, promotes TH1 phenotype by IL-2
*also helps convert macrophages to epithelioid histicytes in granulomas*

26

IL-4

secreted by TH2 subset of CD4
class switch to IG3

27

IL-5

secreted by TH2 subset of CD4
class switch to IgA and recruit eosinophils

28

IL-13

function similar to IL-4

29

IL-2

second activation signal for CD8 cells

30

CD40

second activation signal for B cells

31

what are granulomas characterized by?

epithelioid histiocytes

32

TNF-alpha

causes direct cytotoxic damage to capillary endothelial cells