Popliteal Fossa, Vessels, and Nerves of the Leg and Dorsum of the Foot Flashcards Preview

MSS - MSK Exam 3 > Popliteal Fossa, Vessels, and Nerves of the Leg and Dorsum of the Foot > Flashcards

Flashcards in Popliteal Fossa, Vessels, and Nerves of the Leg and Dorsum of the Foot Deck (52):

boundaries of popliteal fossa

superolateral - biceps femoris tendon
superomedial - semimembranosus
inferolateral - lateral head of gastrocnemius
onferomedial - medial head of gastrocnemius
roof - popliteal fascia of fascia lata
floor - posterior surface of capsule of knee and popliteus muscle


contents of popliteal fossa

termination of posterior fermoral cutaneous nerve
division of sciatic nerve into tibial and common fibular
muscular and cutaneous branhes of tibial nerve
cutaneous braches of common fibular nerve
popliteal vein and tributaries
popliteal arteries and branches
popliteal lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, and fat


superficial to deep in popliteal fossa?

nerves, veins, arteries


popliteal artery

direct continuation of femoral artery after emerges from adductor hiatus

deepest of vascular structures in popliteal fossa

terminates at inferior border of popliteus


genicular anastomosis**

won't ask about the ten arteries
-will be some lab with some arteries tagged
-on written maybe something in principal about it


branches of popliteal artery

lateral and medial superior genicular artery
lateral and medial inferior genicular artery
middle genicular artery

sural branches


how many genicular arteries?


**like 5 spots on a die


lateral and medial superior genicular artery

come off above heads of gastrocneius

deep to hamstring muscles***

in fat


lateral and medial inferior geniuclar arteries

deep to heads of gastrocnemius

in fascia


middle genicular artery

arises from anterior surface ad passes through capsule of knee to medial heads of gastrocnemius muscle


sural branches

pass directly into lateral and medial heads of gastrocnemius muscle

there is 2 of them


sural area

back of lower leg


crural area

front of lower leg


dissect gastroc where?

below the vasculature


bifurcation of popliteal artery?

posterior and anterior tibial arteries


anterior tibial artery

passes above origin of tibialis posterior muscle and interossesous membrane to gain entrance to anterior compartment of leg


posterior tibial recurrent

posterior branch of anterior tibial artery

ascends and joins the genicular anastamosis


circumflex fibular artery

encircles head of fibula to join genicular anastamosis

variable in origin
-from distal popliteal artery or proximal of either anterior or posterior tibial artery


anterior branches of anterior tibial artery?

anterior tibial recurrent
medial and lateral malleolar branches


dorsalis pedis

terminal branch of anterior tibial artery as it passes inferior to superficial extensor retinaculum


branches of dorsalis pedis?

lateral and medial tarsal arteries
arcuate artery
first dorsal metatarsal artery
deep plantar artery


how do dorsal metatarsal arteries communicate?

via perforating arteries with plantar circulation


branches of dorsalis pedis?

lateral and medial tarsal arteries
arcuate artery
first dorsal metatarsal artery
deep plantar artery


posterior tibial artery

one of two terminal branches of popliteal artery

-deep to soleus
-goes within substance of flexor hallucis longus


branches of posterior tibial artery

circumflex fibular artery
fibular artery
communicating branch
posterior medial malleolar
medial calcaneal arteries
medial and lateral plantar arteries


circumflex fibular artery



fibular artery

provides major blood supply to lateral crural compartment

branches from proximal portion of the posterior tibial artery and passes laterally

nutrient artery
communicating branches
perforating arteries
posterior lateral malleolar artery (terminal branch)


posterior tibial artery?

one of two terminal branches of popliteal artery
courses inferiorly deep to soleus occupying a more or less central position in the leg

passes behind medial malleolus between tibial nerve and tendon of flexor digitorum longus to reach plantar surface of foot***


genicular anastomisis

rich blood supply to capsule of knee joint as well as surrounding muscles

-composed of ten vessels arising from:
lateral femoral circumflex artery
femoral artery
popliteal artery
anterior and posterior tibial artery

has superficial and deep plexus***


superficial plexus

blood to muscles in area of knee


deep plexus

lies directly upon capsule of knee joint


knee joint

biggest synovial joint in body

-needs a lot of synovial fluid
-therefore needs lots of synovial membrane


sacral plexus

larger sciatic nerve
-has tibial and common fibular nerve components

common fibular is lateral**
tibial is medial**


common fibular nerve

L4,5 S1,2
courses superficially and laterally within popliteal fossa

provides lateral sural cutaneous nerve to posterior leg while in popliteal fossa

continues to follow course of biceps femoris tendon to head of fibula

common fibular nerve pierces fibularis longus muscle inferior to head of fibula where it divides to:
superficial and deep fibular nerves


tibial nerve

L4,5 S1,2,3
-superficial and central in popliteal fossa

-branches to plantaris and gastrocnemius as wlel as cutaneous nerve to posterior leg:
-medial sural cutaneous nerve


sural communicating nerve

from lateral sural nerve to medial sural cutaneous nerves

-will unites medial sural nerve and sural communicating nerve to form the sural nerve



not weight bearing but easy to damage (superficial)


lateral and medial tarsal artery

course deep to extensor digitorum brevis along the lateral and medial sides of dorsum of the foot

participate in malleolar network


acruate artery

courses laterally across bases of the metatarsals and gives rise to metatarsal arteries 2,3,4 which subsequently give rise to dorsal digital arteries

anastomose with lateral tarsal and lateral plantar arteries


first dorsal metatarsal artery

one of terminal branches of the dorsalis pedia

courses in first metatarsal space and terminates by forming digital arteries on contiguous surfaces of first and second toes


deep plantar artery

also a terminal branch of dorsalis pedis artery

penetrates first metatarsal space to anastomose with plantar arterial arch


superficial fibular nerve

L5 S12

descends along the fibula between the muscles of lateral and anterior compartments

provides muscular branches to fibularis longus and brevis

becomes superficial in distal third of leg to innervate the anterior distal third of leg and divide into medial and intermediate and dorsal cutaneous nerves which provide dorsal digital branches to all toes


superficial fibular nerve has muscular branches to what?

fibularis longus
fibularis brevis


deep fibular nerve


branch from common fibular nerve within substance of the fibularis longus muscle at the lateral neck of the fibula

passes into anterior compartment by piercing extensor digitorum muscle

descends anterior compartment lateral to anterior tibial artery and veins

innervates everything in the anterior compartment


branch of deep fibular nerve

lateral branch - deep to extensor digitorum brevis muscle and contributes sensory fibers to joints of foot

medial branch - follows course of first dorsal metatarsal artery to cutaneously innervate web between first and second toes


tibial nerve

L45 S123

located superficially and centrally within popliteal fossa

in popliteal fossa - branches to plantaris and gastrocnemius (sural branches) as well as a cutaneous neve to posterior leg (medial sural cutaneous nerve)


what gives rise to medial sural cutaneous nerve

tibial nerve


medial and lateral sural cutaneous nerve?

fuse via communicating branch of lateral sural cutaneous nerve
-forms sural nerve


sural nerve

provides lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve to lateral surface of foot and fifth digit and lateraal calcaneal branch to lateral posterior surface of heel


tibial nerve innervation?

all posterior leg muscles


structures passing the flexor retinaculum?

anteromedial to posteromedial
Tom, Dick, ANd Harry

tibialis posterior
flexor digitorum longus
posterior tibial artery with veins
tibial nerve
flexor hallucis longus


saphenous nerve

distal most extension of femoral nerve
supplies cutaneous innervation to medial surface of foot and medial posterior surface of heel