Principles of Neuroscience Lecture 23 Looking at Brain Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Principles of Neuroscience Lecture 23 Looking at Brain Function Deck (17)
0

What a the two ways that we can look at brain function?

1. Clinical tests
2. Brain imaging technology

1

What are cranial nerves?

How can clinicians detect problems with individual cranial nerves?

These are nerves that exit the CNS at brain level, not spinal cord

There are tests for each cranial nerve; we can discriminate and detect exactly where there is a problem

2

What are the two functions of cranial nerves?

Sensory and motor

3

Describe how the cranial nerves are involved in sensation

Vision
Taste
Hearing
Somatic sensation on face
Smell
Balance
Carotid baroreceptors
Vagus nerve

4

Describe how the cranial nerves are involved with movement

Eye
Neck
Shoulders
Face
Mastication
Tongue
Gut

5

Describe what specific tests an tell us about cranial nerves

Each nerve has a specific test that can check to make sure everthing is in order with that nerve

Eg. Eye test, gag reflex etc

6

By looking at vision, what can we infer?

By seeing how vision is affected, we can infer whereabouts the problem in the visual tract has occured

7

By examining the localisation of facial palsy, what can we determine?

By seeing how much of the facial movement is affected, we can tell where a lesion has occured.

Eg.
Upper motor neurons lesion: only a quadrant of the face will be affected: ipsilateral projection will still be intact
Lower motor neuron lesion: half of the face will be affected

8

What does the mono synaptic stretch reflex tell the clinician?

If that particular joint is functioning

From which point down is there damage?

9

What do abnormal gait patterns tell the clinician?

If there is damage to the spinal locomotor pattern generators

10

What do brain scanning technologies allow a clinician to do?

To looks directly at the brain to see where there may be damage

11

Describe the process of EEG
Describe the spatial and temporal resolution
Describe the invasiveness
What can this technology show the clinician?

Electrodes are placed on the skull, and the electric potentials are measured
Good temporal resolution
Poor spatial resolution
Non invasive

We can see the brain waves, so we can tell if the person is asleep of awake.

12

Describe the different brain waves present during sleep and awake

Awake & REM sleep: alpha and beta waves
Low amplitude and high frequency

Asleep: delta waves
High amplitude and low frequency
More synchronous

13

Describe the process of CT scanning
Describe the spatial and temporal resolution
Describe the invasiveness
What can this technology show the clinician?

A person is put in a machine and X rays are sent through the head
A computer analyses the attenuation through the head
Fairly non invasive, but it uses X rays which are harmful.

We can see large structures or abnormalities such as bleeds or distortion

14

Describe the process of PET scanning
Describe the spatial and temporal resolution
Describe the invasiveness
What can this technology show the clinician?

Tagged substance administered intra venously
Gamma rays are fired at the head
When the positron and electron collide, a photon is emitted
The computer can detect the origin of the photon, thus the localisation of the substance is detected

Poor temporal and spatial resolution

Quite invasive, because we are using gamma rays

We can see the activity of the brain

15

Describe the process of MRI
Describe the spatial and temporal resolution
Describe the invasiveness
What can this technology show the clinician?

The patient is placed in a magnetic field, and the relative densities of the brain are detected

Good spatial resolution, poor spatial resolution

Non invasive, because only radio waves are used

We can see
- Structural and functional information
- Activity: regions of increased oxygenated blood flow
- Detect boundary of tumour before surgery

16

What is MR tractography?

We can visualise the tracts in the brain

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