Flashcards in PSY101 - Chapter 7: Learning Deck (32):
A relatively permanent behavior change due to experience.
The process of learning associations.
Association between two stimuli.
Lightning + thunder = startled reaction.
Seeing lightning = anticipation of loud noise + wincing.
The stimulus that elicits an automatic/natural response (before conditioning).
The automatic/natural response to a stimulus (before conditioning).
The stimulus that is paired with the US (initially does not elicit a response, but after conditioning elicits a response).
A stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.
The response to the CS.
Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
--Food = salivation.
--Bell before food = salivation at the bell.
The diminished responding that occurs when the CS no longer signals an upcoming US.
The reappearance of a weakened conditioned response after a pause.
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the CS to elicit similar responses (CR).
The learned ability to discriminate between a CS and stimuli that do not signal an US.
John Garcia: organisms are predisposed to learn associations that help them adapt and survive.
--Contrary to this, some are learned more readily than others and US does not have to immediately follow the CS.
Emotional responses can be understood as developing through classical conditioning.
--Conditioned Little Albert of fear white animals.
Noise (US) = fear (UR)
Noise (US) + Rat (NS) = Fear (UR)
Rat (CS) = Fear (CR)
US = UR
US + NS = UR
CS = CR
If applied to all other of that thing that causes the fear, constitutes a phobia.
Subject acts in some way, receives response from environment, learning occurs.
--Rat pushes lever, receives pellet of food. Now knows it can get food if it pushes the lever.
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Behavior followed by a pleasant outcome is likely to happen again.
Operant Conditioning - Cat Box
Skinner developed the operant chamber to study operant conditioning (cat box).
Shaping - a procedure in which reinforcers (like food) guide an animal's actions toward desired behavior (a.k.a. successive approximations).
--Guy with the mouse obstacle course.
Any response that strengthens a behavior happening again.
Primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcing stimulus.
Conditioned reinforcer: a stimulus that gains tis power to reinforce through its association with a primary reinforcer.
Schedules of Reinforcement
1. Continuous: fixed ratio of 1:1.
2. Fixed Ratio: reinforcement after an exact number of target behaviors.
3. Variable Ratio: reinforcement after variable number of target behaviors.
4. Fixed Interval: Reinforcement can be obtained after exact amount of time.
5. Variable Interval: reinforcement can be obtained after variable amount of time.
--Responses are more consistent with a variable schedule.
Add a stimulus.
Take away a stimulus.
Any event that weakens a behavior happening again.
--Swift and sure punishers can powerfully repress unwanted behavior, leaving it to surface much worse in the future.
a type of learning that becomes apparent only when there is incentive to demonstrate (and in absence of reinforcement).
Predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive (training a pigeon to peck rather than flap wings for food).
Learning by Observation
Bandura made experiments where an adult actor would tray a Bobo doll either aggressively or neutrally, then the child would be put in a room with toys and a Bobo doll and would treat the Bobo doll exactly how the adult treated it.
--Girls were less aggressive, boys were more likely to be aggressive if they watched a man do it.
Prosocial and Antisocial Models
Prosocial have positive effects on behavior, antisocial models have negative effects.
-- Watching violent TV programs causes aggressive behavior (Boyatzis et al: kids watched Power Rangers and had 7x more aggression than the control group).
Provide a neural basis for everyday imitation and observational learning.
Children and Imitation
Children tend to overimitate, doing what an adult has done even if unnecessary.