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Flashcards in PSY101 - Chapter 7: Learning Deck (32):
1

Learning

A relatively permanent behavior change due to experience.

2

Conditioning

The process of learning associations.

3

Classical Conditioning

Association between two stimuli.
Lightning + thunder = startled reaction.
Seeing lightning = anticipation of loud noise + wincing.

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Unconditioned Stimulus

The stimulus that elicits an automatic/natural response (before conditioning).

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Unconditioned Response

The automatic/natural response to a stimulus (before conditioning).

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Conditioned Stimulus

The stimulus that is paired with the US (initially does not elicit a response, but after conditioning elicits a response).

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Neutral Stimulus

A stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.

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Conditioned Response

The response to the CS.

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Pavlov's Experiments

Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
--Food = salivation.
--Bell before food = salivation at the bell.

10

Extinction

The diminished responding that occurs when the CS no longer signals an upcoming US.

11

Spontaneous Recovery

The reappearance of a weakened conditioned response after a pause.

12

Generalization

The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the CS to elicit similar responses (CR).

13

Discrimination

The learned ability to discriminate between a CS and stimuli that do not signal an US.

14

Biological Predispositions

John Garcia: organisms are predisposed to learn associations that help them adapt and survive.
--Contrary to this, some are learned more readily than others and US does not have to immediately follow the CS.

15

John Watson

Emotional responses can be understood as developing through classical conditioning.
--Conditioned Little Albert of fear white animals.
Noise (US) = fear (UR)
Noise (US) + Rat (NS) = Fear (UR)
Rat (CS) = Fear (CR)

16

Phobias

US = UR
US + NS = UR
CS = CR
If applied to all other of that thing that causes the fear, constitutes a phobia.

17

Operant Conditioning

Subject acts in some way, receives response from environment, learning occurs.
--Rat pushes lever, receives pellet of food. Now knows it can get food if it pushes the lever.

18

Thorndike's Law of Effect

Behavior followed by a pleasant outcome is likely to happen again.

19

Operant Conditioning - Cat Box

Skinner developed the operant chamber to study operant conditioning (cat box).

20

Shaping Behavior

Shaping - a procedure in which reinforcers (like food) guide an animal's actions toward desired behavior (a.k.a. successive approximations).
--Guy with the mouse obstacle course.

21

Reinforcement

Any response that strengthens a behavior happening again.
Primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcing stimulus.
Conditioned reinforcer: a stimulus that gains tis power to reinforce through its association with a primary reinforcer.

22

Schedules of Reinforcement

1. Continuous: fixed ratio of 1:1.
2. Fixed Ratio: reinforcement after an exact number of target behaviors.
3. Variable Ratio: reinforcement after variable number of target behaviors.
4. Fixed Interval: Reinforcement can be obtained after exact amount of time.
5. Variable Interval: reinforcement can be obtained after variable amount of time.
--Responses are more consistent with a variable schedule.

23

Positive

Add a stimulus.

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Negative

Take away a stimulus.

25

Punishment

Any event that weakens a behavior happening again.
--Swift and sure punishers can powerfully repress unwanted behavior, leaving it to surface much worse in the future.

26

Latent Learning

a type of learning that becomes apparent only when there is incentive to demonstrate (and in absence of reinforcement).

27

Biological Constraints

Predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive (training a pigeon to peck rather than flap wings for food).

28

Learning by Observation

Bandura made experiments where an adult actor would tray a Bobo doll either aggressively or neutrally, then the child would be put in a room with toys and a Bobo doll and would treat the Bobo doll exactly how the adult treated it.
--Girls were less aggressive, boys were more likely to be aggressive if they watched a man do it.

29

Prosocial and Antisocial Models

Prosocial have positive effects on behavior, antisocial models have negative effects.
-- Watching violent TV programs causes aggressive behavior (Boyatzis et al: kids watched Power Rangers and had 7x more aggression than the control group).

30

Mirror Neurons

Provide a neural basis for everyday imitation and observational learning.

31

Children and Imitation

Children tend to overimitate, doing what an adult has done even if unnecessary.

32

Theory of Mind

People's ideas about their own and others' mental states (feelings, perceptions, thoughts, predicting behaviors).