PSY101 - Chapter 9: Thinking and Language Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSY101 - Chapter 9: Thinking and Language Deck (29):
1

Cognition

All the mental activites associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, communication.

2

Problem Solving

Algorithms: methodical, step-by-step procedures that guarantee a solution.
Heuristics: simple thinking strategies that allow us to solve problems efficiently, speedier but more error prone.

3

Obstacles to Problem Solving

1. Confirmation Bias: the tendency to seek out info that should confirm out theory and to not seek out or ignore info that might falsify our theory.
2. Falsification: (Popper) we can show that the consequences of a theory/idea are not empirically supported. - If P, then Q. If not Q, then not P.
3. Fixation: our inability to see a problem from a new perspective, employing a different mental set.
4. Functional Fixedness: our tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions.

4

The Representativeness Heuristic

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent/match particular prototypes.

5

The Availability Heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory (how readily they come to mind).

5

Intuitive Heuristics

Representative and availability.

6

Overconfidence

Tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgments. (brought on my intuitive heuristics and eagerness to confirm the beliefs we already hold)

7

Belief Perseverance

Our tendency to cling to our initial concepts even after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
--Capitol punishment

8

Framing

The way an issue is posed significantly affects decisions and judgments.
-- condom failure rate

10

Anchoring

Final judgments and behaviors are assimilated or become more similar to an initial anchor value.
--nuclear war probability.

11

Language

Refers to our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them as we think and communicate.
--arbitrary: sounds produced to resemble a word do not reflect the meaning of the word.

12

Phonemes

Smallest distinctive sound unit in language.

13

Morphemes

The smallest unit that carries meaning in language, including words such as "bag," and parts of words, such as prefixes.

14

Grammar

System of rules that enables us to communicate, including rules for deriving meaning from morphemes (semantics), and rules for ordering words to form sentences (syntax).

15

Language Development

Children learn their native languages much before learning to add 2+2.
After age 1, we learn ~3,500 words a year, 60,000 by the time we graduate high school.

15

Language acquisition device

Neurological system which allows us to understand and produce language.

16

Babbling

4 months: the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds, first unrelated to household language, then related.

17

One-word Stage

Around first birthday: stage of speech development in which the child speaks mostly in single words.

18

Two-word Speech

Around second birthday: the stage of speech development during which a child speaks mainly in two-word statements.

19

The Speaker

The stage of speech development in which a child begins uttering longer phrases.

20

Language Processing

Understanding and producing language.

21

Damage to Broca's and Wernicke's areas

Broca's: inability to produce speech.
Wernicke's: inability to understand speech.

22

Language Influence on Thinking

People express different profiles of personality traits depending on the language in which they take the test.
Expanding vocabulary expands your ability to think - read good writing.

23

Tetsuro Matsuzawa

Studied chimps' ability to remember and relate numbers.

24

Difference Between Human and Animal Communication Systems

1. Apes have difficulty acquiring even their limited vocabularies, unlike human children.
2. May be a result of behavior shaping.
3. Lack human syntax.

25

Nondeclarative (Procedural) Memory

Thinking of something in images rather than in words.

26

Outcome Simulation

Mentally visualizing an outcome.

27

Process Simulation

Mentally visualizing a process/action.

28

Effect of Thinking on Language

Thinking affects our language, which then affects our thought.