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Flashcards in PSY395 Exam 3 Deck (55):
1

Population

Aggregate of all of the cases that conform to some designated set of specifications.

2

Stratum

One or more specifications that divide a population into mutually exclusive segments.

3

Population element

A single member of a population.

4

Census

A count of all the elements in a population.

5

Sample

A subset of the population.

6

Probability Sampling

One can specify for each element of the population the probability that it will be included in he sample.

7

Non-probability Sampling

No way to estimate the probability each element has of being included in the sample and no assurance that every element has some chance of being included.

8

Simple Random Sampling

A process that gives each element in the population an equal chance of being included in the sample, but also every combination of the desired number of cases equally likely.

9

Representative sampling plan

A plan that ensures the odds are great enough so that the selected sample is sufficiently representative of the population.

10

Stratified sampling

Divide the population into two or more strata and then take a simple random sample form from each stratum.

11

Cluster sampling

Groups or sets of elements using simple or stratified sampling, then randomly choose a cluster.

12

Accidental Sampling

Using cases at hand as a sample.
-convenience

13

Quota Sampling

A selection of a sample that is a replica of the population to which one wants to generalize. But, uses a convenience sample to meet the quota.

14

Purposive Sampling

Handpicking cases to be included in the sample.
-following an election district that in the past has been predictive of the election.
-Milgram studies

15

Snowball Sampling

A small initial sample :snowballs: into a sample large enough to meet the requirements of research design and data analysis.
Hard to get groups/samples (drug users).

16

Self-report methods

Any instrument that asks people to report their own attitudes, feelings, perceptions and beliefs.

17

Goal of designing a study

Measure....
-Attitudes and beliefs?
--political attitudes
--consumer satisfaction
-Facts and demographics?
--age/gender/ethnicity
--"Does the sun revolve around the earth?"
-Behaviors?
--How often do you exercise/go to church?

18

Wording Problems on Surveys

Question wording, question order
Identity of survey taker/interviewer

19

Simple wording changes

Loftus & Palmer, 1974
'homosexuals' vs 'gay man and lesbians'

20

Anchoring

Final judgments and behaviors are assimilated or become more similar to an initial anchor value.

21

Jargon/slang

Do you have a family history of cerebrovascular accident? Stroke. It's a fucking stroke.

22

Double-Barreled Questions

Avoid asking multiple things at once
pay AND job conditions
interesting AND useful

23

Loaded (Leading) Questions

Designed to elicit a certain response.
-Should the mayor spend more tax money to keep the city's excellent streets in super shape?

24

Double-Negatives

Does it seem possible or does it seem impossible to you that the Nazi extermination of the Jews never happened?
--Affirmative response because of confusion about the word 'never' here mixed with impossible
Does it seem possible to you that the Nazi extermination of the Jews never happened, or do you feel certain that it happened?
--Only 1% reported that it might not have happened.

25

Negative Wording

Questions where agreement means disagreement
-Do you think that Congress should not pass a new gun control law?

26

Questions that assume an answer to the question they ask

There are many people who believe that campus parking is a problem. Are you one of them?

27

Question Order Problems

Contrast Effect: order results in greater differences in responses
Assimilation effect: responses are more similar as a result of their order
Context effect: could get very different answers to question about "How satisfied are you with your life?"

28

Identity of Survey Taker

A black vs. white interviewer asking about racial attitudes
-More likely to get socially desirable responses, not honest ones for certain combinations

29

Acquiescence Response Bias

Tendency to check the same response category in a series of similar questions (yea-sayers, nay-sayers)
-Resolve by including some reverse-coded items

30

Socially-desirable responding

Responding to look good, not to respond accurately.
-Increase/ensure anonymity
-Add inducements for accurate reporting (Bogus Pipeline - trick into believing researcher can read true feelings)
-Include filler items to Mask/Obscure true purpose
-Include catch items ('I have never lied')
-Cross check with Behavior measures (self-reports)
-Avoid self-reports altogether (instead use implicit/covert measures - the measurements of attitudes using unobtrusive techniques like physiological measures or behavioral observations)

31

Open-ended Question

Requires an unstructured, free response
-Rorschach
-Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
---unreliable, not valid, lots of training required
-Written Text Question (requires coding scheme that is qualitative or quantitative

32

Closed-ended (Fixed-coice) Question

Asks for structured, fixed response
-set of fixed options
--Categorical: no meaningful numerical values assigned to responses (probably nominal)
--Dichotomous: clear-cut yes or no, good for symptom checklists, public opinion surveys, but limits ability to do statistics
--Rating Scales: Likert rating scales (5 or 7)
--Semantic Differential Scale: respondents rate any concept using 7-point, evaluated on one of three attitudinal dimensions (evaluation, activity, potency)
--Graphic Rating Scale:like Likert, but responses are more continuous, precise (placing X on continuum)

33

Mail Survey

Anonymity/reduced bias, low cost, wide geographic area, convenient
But
low response rates/biased sample, no control over conditions when survey is completed, can't answer questions of participants, limits on question types

34

Internet Surveys

Fast/inexpensive, no limits on question types and visual aids, contingency questions possible
but
Overused/poorly conducted, sampling, conditions when survey is completed

35

Telephone Surveys

Quickly/w/large staff, sequence of questions, computers speed data entry, random digit dialing makes random sample more likely
but
Selection bias, limits on question types

36

In-Person Interviews

High response rate, long/complex surveys, clarify/answer questions, control over order of questions, control/report conditions
but
Expensive, sampling problems (homeless), interviewer bias

37

Constructing survey

--Decide what info/how to administer
--Write a draft
--Third-party proofreader
--Pretest, edit, finalize procedures
--Put demographic questions at the end

38

Key components of experiments

1. Manipulated independent variable (at least 2 conditions, control of extraneous variables)
2. Statistical testing of hypotheses (ANOVA, differences due to chance is

39

Benefits and limitations of experiments

Benefits: inferences for causality, theory testing, interactions between variables
Limitations: low generalizability, a few variables at a time in an experiment, difficult/impossible, must know a lot about phenomenon prior, relatively expensive.

40

Quasi-experiments (Grouping Variables)

IV = GV (not manipulated)
---Gender/ethnicity, pre-existing attitudes, personality or trait variables

41

Why manipulate more than one IV?

More efficient/more control.
Results valid across wide range of conditions are more valuable.
Identify where the results are not valid (C moderates relation between A & B).

42

Select DV

Use theory, want it to be reliable/valid.
Be aware of ceiling/floor effects

43

Control

Facilitated Communication: when knowledge of the facilitator is controlled for, the autistic child's performance is found to depend on tactile cuing by the facilitator.
Clever Hans
---These could be seen for what they are if a control group is included.

44

Random Assignment

Each person in your sample has an equal likelihood of being in any condition ----causality

45

Random Sampling

Each person in the population has an equal likelihood of being in your study. -----generalizability

46

Internal Validity

Is the study logic solid?
Did the experimental stimulus make some significant difference in this specific instance?
--Establish with random assignment to condition and/or order control of extraneous variables
THREATS:
-ambiguous temporal precedence
-selection (cohort effect)
-history
-maturation
-regression
-attrition/mortality
-testing
-instrumentation
-additive/interactive effects of threats to internal validity

47

External Validity (generalizability)

To what populations, settings, independent variables, and dependent variables can this effect be generalized?

48

Population Generalizability

To what people can you generalize?
Allows you to assume that the results of your study are true for some larger group of people.

49

Statistical Generalizability

RANDOM SAMPLING
Allows you to generalize to the POPULATION from which you RANDOMLY SELECTED (only).
What are the limitations of the experimental setting compared to real life? - research setting different from other settings, variables operationalized.

50

Threats to external validity

Interaction of the causal relationship with units (does effect found in one population hold for another population).
ICR over treatment variations (effect for one treatment may not hold with other variations).
ICR with outcomes (does treatment hold across different DVs)
ICR with Settings (does treatment hold across different settings).

51

Treatment Confounds

The experimenter has created differences not just on the independent variable, but other variables too.

52

Reactivity (Hawthorne Effect)

Participant's behavior is influenced by he knowledge that they are being observed.

53

Demand Characteristics

Cues available to participants in an experiment that enable them to figure out what is expected the experimenter. May alter their natural behavior.

54

Experimenter Effects (Observer Bias)

Treating Ps differently depending on the condition they are in.
-Self-fulfilling prophecy
-Use "double-blind" experiments

55

When results null...

Floor/ceiling effects
Weak manipulation (restriction of range)
Insensitive measure of DV
Invalid manipulation of IV (requires manipulation check - direct measure of IV)