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Flashcards in PSY395 Exam 1 Deck (53):
1

Determinism

Events have meaningful, systematic causes.

2

Empiricism

The method of making observations. (making observations is the best method).

3

Parsimony

If we have two competing theories, we should use the simpler or more frugal of the two.

4

Testability

You must be able to realistically test the theory (Validation, Falsification, Qualification)

5

Positive Test Bias (Confirmation Bias)

The tendency to seek out information that should confirm our theory.
And we do not seek out/ignore information that might falsify our theory.

6

Deductively Valid Arguments

Arguments where the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion.

7

Modus Ponens

Affirming the antecedent.
-If my theory is true, then I should observe X.
-My theory is true.
-I observe X.

8

Modus Tollens

Denying the consequent.
-If my henry is true, then I should observe X.
-I did not observe X.
-Therefore, my theory is not true.

9

Falsification

The line of demarcation between science and non-science.
We ca show that the consequences of a theory (or an idea) are not empirically supported. Modus Tollens.

10

Belmont Report

US Department of Health & Human Services creates three ethic principals.
1. Respect for persons (autonomy): participants are treated as autonomous, capable of making deliberate decisions about participating in the research.
2. Beneficence: maximize benefits and minimizing any possible harmful side effects to the research participants.
3. Justice: ensure the fair distribution of costs and benefits to potential research participants - same cost/benefit

11

Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment

A study of black male sharecroppers in Alabama with Syphilis. Were given 'treatment' but not to cure - blood tests. Many had sex with spouses and had children born with congenital syphilis.

12

Informed Consent

Participants should be provided with all information that might influence their decision to participate.
But not telling them the hypothesis.
-Basic procedure
-risks
-time
-assures voluntary participation, withdrawal without penalty, confidentiality
Contact information.

13

Coercion

Fear of retribution if choose not to participate.
Benefits are too great (undue influence).

14

Undue Influence

Providing an incredibly large payment for participation.

15

Deception

Omission - withholding information
Commission - actively lying
APA = permissible under three conditions:
-research is important
-no alternatives
-no foreseeable harm

16

Debriefing

Two purposes:
-Dehoaxing - revealing study's purpose and hypothesis
-Desensitizing - reducing any stress caused
Two Benefits:
-participation can be seen as a learning experience
-participants respond more positively to research process

17

Risk/Benefit Ratio

Physical harm
-administering drugs
-denying sleep/food
Stress
-stressful tasks
-distressing events
Loss of Privacy
-confidentiality
-public observation

18

Institutional Review Board (IRB) - criteria

-Beneficence (risks minimized)
-Risks reasonable in relation to benefits (beneficence)
-Selection of participants is equitable (justice)
-Informed consent sought (respect)
-Informed consent documented (respect)

19

IRB Review Procedures

Based on risk
Those exempt from review:
-no risk
-anonymous surveys, questionnaires, educational tests, naturalistic observation, archival research
Expedited:
-minimal risk (routine risk)
-studies with common procedures
Full Board Review:
-greater than minimal risk
-all the rest

20

IRB Disadvantages

Non-specialists may pass judgment on procedures that they do not understand.
Overzealous in concern for risk of doing research (not enough focus on costs of not doing research).
Variability/inconsistency in decision-making.

21

APA Code of Ethics

5 general Principles that are an extension of Belmont Principles (includes same three) plus fidelity and responsibility, and integrity.

22

Fidelity and Responsibility

Establish trust: stay aware of responsibility to society and exemplify the highest standard of professional behavior in their roles as researchers. Use training responsibly, manage conflicts of interest appropriately.
(therapists must avoid dual-relationships with their clients.

23

Integrity

Promote accuracy, honesty and truthfulness in the science, teaching and practice of psychology.
Compels researchers to be honest is all aspects of research.

24

Plagiarism

Deliberately taking the ideas of someone else and claiming them as one's own.
Direct: copying words verbatim without citation
Accidental: paraphrasing someone else's idea without citation.

25

Data Fabrication/Falsification

Failure to be honest in managing data
Forms of fabrication: manufacturing data/results
Forms of falsification: altering/omitting collected data, guessing values of missing data.

26

Non-Human Animal Subjects (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, IACUC)

Replacement: use alternatives to animal research if possible
Refinement: minimize/eliminate animal distress
Reduction: employ designs or procedures that require fewest number of animals possible

27

Operational Definition

Theoretical constructs that are stated in terms of concrete, observable procedures (to connect unobservable traits or experiences)

28

Categorical Variable

Has discrete (mutually exclusive) categories - sex
Frequencies and chi-square

29

Continuous Variable

Many levels or values that have meaning

30

NOIR

Nominal: umbers arenames only (no order) - frequencies and chi-square
Ordinal: numbers indicate order but distance between not equal - nonparametric statistics
Interval: distance between equally spaces but no true 0 point - ANOVA
Ratio: true 0 point - ANOVA

31

Random Sampling

Each person in population has an equal likelihood of being in your study - generalizability

32

Random Assignment

Each person in your sample has equal likelihood of being in any condition - causality

33

Law of Large Numbers

Sampling - the more people in your population, the better your generalizability
Assignment - the more people, the better for causality

34

IV

Factors - when more than one, considered a 'factorial' design

35

DV

Level

36

Between-subjects Designs

Each participant is in one and only one condition.

37

Within-Subjects Design

Some (or all) participants undergo all treatment conditions.

38

Inferential Statistics

Relationship between two or more variables

39

Descriptive statistics

Measures of central tendency, variability
-mean, median, mode
-range, variance, standard deviation

40

Mode

Good for nominal variables or if need to know more frequent observation.
Quick and easy

41

Median

Good for "bad" distributions, or those with arbitrary ceilings/floors
Ordinal Data

42

Mean

Most reliable, inference as well as description, best estimator (all data included).
Not for bad distributions because sensitive to every score or for categorical data.

43

Variability

How much the scores fluctuate.
-Range: difference between largest and smallest.
-Variance: average squared deviation of each score from the mean.
-Standard Deviation: square root of the variance.

44

Non-Experimental Hypotheses

Statement of how two or more things might be related.

45

Experimental Hypotheses

Statement of how a cause predicts an effect (why related). Testable, falsifiable, parsimonious, fruitful.

46

Testable

Decide whether true/false based on observation.
"a scientific hypothesis must generate predictions"

47

Falsifiable

Can it be disproved.

48

Parsimonious

Choose simpler or more frugal theory to explain a phenomenon to test.

49

Fruitful

Will it lead to further research?

50

Type I Error

False positive - rejecting null when shouldn't.

51

Type II Error

False negative - failing to reject null when should.

52

Reduce observer bias

-Use good operational definitions
-Time sampling
-Situation sampling
-Participant or subject sampling

53

Results Section

Includes: purpose, descriptive statistic, inferential statistics, conclusion.
Do not include: implications