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Flashcards in PSY255 - Exam 2 Deck (43):
1

Staffing decision

The decision that determines and defines the staff of workforce of the organization.
Movement of workforce through promotion/turnover/etc.
Choose the candidate with the highest probability of success.

2

High-Performance Work Practices

Set of practices expected to link to positive bottom-line effects/positive results for organization performance.
Includes use of formal job analyses/selection from within for key positions/etc. (how movement [staffing decision] decided)

3

Guion's Model

Step 1: Identify applicants
Step 2: Preliminary assessments
Step 3: formal assessments
Step 4: Predict right fit between person and job
Step 5: Administrative procedures (background checks)
Step 6: Placement

4

Stakeholders in Staffing

Line managers, co-workers, applicants
--+applicants family/society/unions

5

Construct Validity

The extent to which tan assessment measures what it is supposed to measure.

6

Criterion-Related Validity

Correlate predictor with criterion to validate inference that higher test scores are related to higher performance.

7

Content Validity

Content of selection procedure is an appropriate measure of work behaviors.

8

Selection Ratio

Relationship between the number of jobs available/number of people assessed.
Low ratios are good.

9

Prediction Errors

False Negative
False Positive
True Positive
True Negative

10

Cut Score

Score used to hire people, the score below which a candidate would be rejected.

11

Utility

Utility analysis (cost/benefit analysis)
Consider cost of assessment and false positives, quality of applicant, quantity of applicants, benefits of a new method on base rate.

12

Training

Systematic acquisition of skills, concepts or attitudes that results in improved performance in another environment.

13

Learning

Relatively permanent change in behavior and capability that is produced by experience and practice.

14

Performance

The behavior in the workplace that is related to organizational and personal goals.

15

Social Learning Theory

Self-efficacy, goal setting, feedback, learning goal orientation, performance=approach goal oriented, performance-avoidant goal orientation.

16

Learning orientation

Deemphasize competition, create a community of learning, encourage making errors and experimenting with new ways of doing things

17

Four Principles for Training Success

Relevant information is presented, knowledge/skills/abilities are demonstrated, opportunities are provided for practice, feedback given during/after practice.

18

Transfer of Training

Your ability to transfer your knowledge to different tasks and settings. Seldom evaluated and often unknown, but the ultimate goal of training.

19

Kirkpatrick's Four Level Model

Level 1: reaction criteria - trainee impressions (internal)
Level 2: learning criteria - knowledge acquired (internal)
Level 3: behavioral criteria - transfer to job performance (external)
Level 4: results criteria - relationship to organizational outcomes

20

Training Evaluation Designs

Strongest include:
Random assignment
Control group
Measures obtained before and after training (if control group improves less, then training is effective).

21

Mediation

X causes the mediator, the mediator causes Y.
Mediator explains the link between X & Y.
X (independent) --> M (mediator) --> Y (dependent)

22

Moderation

The effect of X on Y depends on the levels of the moderator.
Moderation attempts to identify variables that strengthen and/or change the direction of the relationship between the dependent and independent.
W interacts with X in predicting Y, if the regression weight of Y varies as a function of W.

23

Job Enrichment

Increase motivational potential of jobs via strengthening core job characteristics.

24

Attitudes

The degree to which you like or dislike something.
Contains affective, behavioral, and cognitive components.
Includes job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
-Influence behavior, spill over between work and non-work contexts.

25

Job Satisfaction

Positive attitude or emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience.

26

Disposition

Levels of satisfaction remain stable over time, even when they change jobs.
Childhood temperament is related to adult job satisfaction 40 years later.
Job satisfaction of identical twins reared apart is similar.
Disposition is related to satisfaction because it influences how you experience emotionally relevant events at work.

27

Work Situation

Nature of the work is the most important factor (more than pay).

28

Overall Satisfaction

In general.

29

Facet Satisfaction

Job Description Index (JDI): satisfaction with job tasks/pay/promotion/supervision/co-workers
Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS): satisfaction with pay/security/social factors/supervision/growth.

30

Trait

Enduring/lasting personality characteristic.

31

State

Transient/temporary (emotions).

32

Broaden-and-Build Theory

PA leads you to seek out experiences that make you feel good, engage with the environment more, widen your thoughts and actions, build your resources.

33

Affective Commitment

Emotional attachment to an organization.

34

Continuance commitment

Perceived higher cost of leaving the organization than of staying.

35

Normative Commitment

Obligation to remain in the organization.

36

Hom and Griffeth Model

Thoughts of quitting lead to utility of quitting leads to job searching leads to comparing alternatives leads to quitting.
Comparison usually determines.

37

Lee et al.

"Shocks" cause voluntary departure more often than accumulated job dissatisfaction.

38

Organizational Psychology

Systematic study of dispositional and situational variables that influence the experiences and behaviors of individuals in organizations.
-Motivation/attitudes/leadership/teamwork/etc.

39

"O" Side Performance

Performance = (ability * motivation) - situational constraiints

40

Motivation

Force that energizes/directs/sustains behavior.
Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation.

41

Campbell's model

Motivation is one of the determinants of performance.
Job performance is a result of "can do" and "will do."

42

Motivational Theories

Person as machine
Person as scientist
Person as intentional

43

VIE theory

Expectancy, instrumentality, valence