Flashcards in PSY255 - Exam 3 Deck (90):
Consequences of Injustice
-Work and job withdrawal
Distributive: What I get, rewards/resources/workload
Procedural: how it was decided
Informational: how it was described before and explained afterward
Interpersonal: how the decision maker acted
Perceived fairness of the outcomes of a decision to organizational members. (are outcomes distributed fairly?)
-Equity (according to contributions, performance, seniority, ability)
-Equality (everyone the same)
-Need (according to need or preference)
Perceived fairness of how employees are treated by employer. (how was I treated when decisions were made?)
-Interpersonal justice: treating people with respect/politeness/dignity
-Informational Justice: providing adequate information about the decision-making process
Perceived fairness of the process by which decisions are made. (is the process of making decisions fair?)
Leventhal's 5 Rules for Procedural Justice:
-Consistency: process is applied consistently across people and time.
-Bias Suppression:decision-makers are neutral
-Accuracy of Information: process based on accurate information.
-Ethicality: the process upholds personal standards of ethics and morality.
-Representation: all groups affected by the decision are heard from.
Having the possibility of challenging/influencing/expressing an objection to a process/outcome.
--Weekly feedback forms, writing a letter to a company after poor service.
Discretionary communication of work-related ideas and suggestions with the intention to improve org.
-Voice efficacy and voice safety predict voice, then individual outcomes and organization outcomes are the results.
Linked to each type of justice.
-formal and informal
-does not hold with "sham" or "pseudo" voice
Effects of having voice
Increase fairness perceptions of the decision-making procedure.
Satisfaction with the outcomes.
Positive attitudes toward the decision.
Effects of being denied voice
Frustration/disengagement/turnover/intro-group conflict/decreased fairness perception of the decision-making procedures.
Restoration of Justice
Organizational remedies; ways to atone for perceived injustice:
-instrumental remedies: provide economic or direct benefits in atonement
-punitive remedies: punish the transgressor, the perpetrator suffers.
personality/beliefs/values: variation based on any attribute people use to tell themselves that another person is different.
The degree to which individuals feel safe, valued, and able to be authentic at work both as individuals and as members of various groups.
Surface (demographics) level vs. deep (attitudes/beliefs) level diversity and the consideration of time.
-Surface-level effects on group cohesion and performance disappear over time as compared to deep-level diversity.
Legal mandates - if I don't follow law, I will get in trouble
Good public/social relations - makes more attractive employer. (it looks better if I follow these rules).
Makes the org. more effective and more profitable. (it is economically rewarding to follow these rules).
Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) process
Attract those who see themselves as similar to those in the organization.
Selection is a process of reducing diversity in KSAOs.
Attrition of those who do not fit, are dissimilar.
Effects of diversity on org.s
Diversity leads to better problem-solving, greater conflict, greater creativity, less cohesion.
Value in Diversity Hypothesis
Diversity helps to make stronger team:
-better access to info
-enhances problem solving
-broader range of knowledge/experience --> better decision making
-most valuable for tasks requiring creativity
Relational Demography Hypothesis
The relative makeup of various demographic characteristics in particular work groups.
Dissimilarity affects groups conflict and cooperation negatively and leads to more negative attitudes, turnover, etc.
-people are attracted to others with similar characteristics.
-if in a group that is similar, will have greater cooperative behaviors.
-people characterize themselves and others according to salient characteristics (group memberships such as gender, race)
-people react more positively toward those in the same group
"we are all the same"
"we are not all the same"
Shared values that arise from common experiences of members of a group.
How well an individual's values are aligned with culture he/she is living or working in.
A manager or professional assigned to work in a location outside of his or her country.
-Financial investment of the parent country and org. productivity and reputation at stake in new country.
Desire for personal choice and personal experience.
Desire for harmony, social practices encourage collective distribution of resources, express loyalty to own family or org.
Deference to others; comfort with status differences.
Affects: extent of participation, functioning in workgroups of unequal status, communication.
Seek to reduce unpredictability of the future.
Affects: desire for information, desire for structured activities and job descriptions, sources of stress.
Assertiveness and emotional expression
Acceptability of assertiveness in social relationships, in expressing feelings in public.
Affects: communication in groups, interpretation of others' expressions.
-Open to new ways of doing things
-Comfortable in communicating with those of other cultures.
-Skilled at recognizing behaviors influenced by culture.
-Knowledgeable about other cultures.
-Goes past stereotypes based on culture when interacting with others.
The individual in the group/team given the responsibility for directing and coordinating task relevant group behaviors.
-group/team leadership, not CEOs and presidents
Whoever steps up as a leader.
-Informal: someone who just fills the role without having an official title.
-Formal: actual title on the position.
Successful performance of those being led.
Leader vs. Manager
Leader: someone that inspires/motivates.
Outcomes of Leadership
Group/team performance, processes/interaction, feelings (commitment/identification/loyalty)
-leader as a great person
-leader behaviors (person-directed and task-directed behaviors)
-leader X situation interaction (contingency views)
-new leadership approaches (leader/member exchange, transformational leadership.
Great person view
History: earliest view of leadership
Description: people are born with leadership characteristics.
Results: not valuable in I/O psychology because impossible study.
History: prevalent in 20s-30s
Description: certain traits make good leaders.
Results: no agreement on traits of leaders (changed as a function of the Big Five measures of personality).
History: started at Ohio State and UofM in 50s.
Description: what do leaders do?
Results: major domains of leader behaviors are seen as: tasks and relationships.
Initiating structure:organize and define effectively.
LBDQ score: was your leader/boss considerably higher on one than the other (on consideration/initiating structure)? How does his/her relative scores relate to what you think of his/her effectiveness as a leader?
History: house (1971) Path-goal theory
Do leader behaviors interact with characteristics of the situation in a predictable way?
Results: leader behavior and situation both influence subordinate goals and values which influences their effort and satisfaction.
Cognitive resources theory
The effect of leader intelligence on leader effectiveness is contingent on the situation.
Social process by which an individual intentionally exerts influence over others to structure their behaviors.
Individual's potential to influence attitudes/behaviors of others.
Successful long-term performance subordinate
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
1975 - do leaders interact with subordinates in the same way?
Results: in-group (high LMX) and out-group (low LMX)(higher turnover).
LMX agreement and outcomes
-work engagement higher when there is agreement.
-highest in high-high agreement.
-Indirect effects on OCBs: low LMX agreement (quid pro quo), high LMX agreement (social transaction).
Behavior of inspirational leaders who transform followers by appealing to noble motivates.
Results: 4 strategies
-inspirational motivation- appealing vision of the future.
-idealized influence- conviction/trust/purpose
-individualized consideration- deals w/ assumptions and tries new ways of doing things
Leaders who show followers how they can meet their personal goals by adopting a behavior pattern.
Leader develops social contracts w/ followers in which certain behaviors are rewarded.
Lead w/ integrity and genuineness and do not project artificial personality.
Personal magnetism, compelling charm, and/or attractiveness that inspires admiration/compliance from others.
Gender and Leadership
Men favor autocratic, women democratic. No difference between men/women in effectiveness in lab/field.
-interdependent/independent (determines coordination requirements, when linked to rewards determines motivation)
-dynamic/static (dynamic undergoes development)
Conflicting opinions: size has a curvilinear relationship w/ effectiveness, size not related to performance.
Recommendations: appropriate size depends on the task + environment.
FFM: team effectiveness: effects greatly differ between lab and field setting, effects stronger when high team interdependence
Process of mutual influence/adjustment
Seen as source of info, implications for satisfaction/commitment/adjustment
High expectations (pygmalion effect). Higher newcomer role performance.
-Forming: acquainted, polite, guarded
-Storming: Increased comfort and disagreement.
-Norming: roles/norms established
-Performing: goals/productivity at its highest
Input-Process-Output Model of Team Effectiveness
Input variables: organizational context, task characteristics, team composition.
Output: productivity/performance/member satisfaction/innovation.
Desire to remain team/reach goal
Homogeneity leads to interpersonal liking.
Heterogeneity leads to creativity.
Shared Mental Models
Organization of team knowledge - team schema: common understanding of task requirements and timing, provides knowledge enabling coordination.
Functional role of team leaders
Development/shaping or processes by shaping new teams/members, promoting goal commitment, establishing coherence.
Monitoring team performance by managing events.
People do not put forth as much effort in a team as when working alone.
-Decreases if individual productivity is visible to others.
-Less likely in collectivist culture/cohesive groups.
Team effectiveness should include a measure of team viability: members satisfaction/participation/willingness to work together in future.
Curvilinear: declines after 2-3 years of tenure.
Occupational Health Psychology
Application of psychology to improving the quality of work life, and to protecting and promoting the safety/health/well-being of workers.
Physical or psychological demands to which an individual responds.
Reaction or response to stressor.
Although stressful, have potential gains (challenging work)
Positive correlation with job satisfaction, negative correlation with searching for a new job.
Constraints that interfere with one's work (politics at work).
Negative correlation with job satisfaction, positive with search for a new job.
Stressors at Work
Physical/task stressors: effect of multiple stressors can be cumulative (noise/work schedules/workload).
Psychological Stressors: lack of control/predictability (individual perception of control or predictability on the job), interpersonal conflict (negative interactions with co-workers/supervisors/clients, can occur when resources are scarce, employees have incompatible interests, or employees feel they are not being treated fairly.
Result from the multiple task requirements or roles of employees.
Role ambiguity- lack of clear knowledge about expected behavior.
Role conflict: demands from different sources are incompatible.
Role Overload: expected to fill to many roles at once.
Regulations of one's emotions to meet job or organizational demands: surface acting (managing one's reactions), deep acting (managing one's feelings)
Person-Environment Fit Model
Hypothesis: fit between person and environment determines amount of stress that a person perceives (person-job fit: do skills and abilities match the demands of the job)(person-organization fit: whether values of an employee are consistent with the values held by most others in the org.)
Attraction-Selection-Attrition Theory: when there isn't fit, people will get stressed and leave.
Performance and Stress
Inverted U-shaped curve holds for less complex tasks, but not for more complex where more stress generally leads to declines in performance.
Psychological Consequences of Stress - Strains
Burnout: extreme state of psychological strain resulting from prolonged response to chronic job stressors that exceed an individual's resources to cope with them.
3 components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, low personal accomplishment
Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP)
Ambitious, impatient, time urgent, irritable.
Compared to Type B's, Type As are: more punctual, work at faster rates, higher achievers in college and in professional careers.
Workaholics vs. Work Enthusiasts
Workaholics: high work involvement and drive, low enjoyment at work.
Work Enthusiasts: high work involvement and enjoyment.
A set of personality characteristics that provide resistance to stress: feeling in control of one's life, having a sense of commitment to family and work goals and values, seeing unexpected change as a challenge.
Sense of positive self-worth
Coping with stress
Problem-focused coping: managing or altering the problem causing the stress.
Emotion-focused coping: reducing the emotional response to the problem.
Reducing and Managing Stress
Primary prevention strategies:modifying or eliminating stressors in work environment (improve work conditions, provide control to workers, define roles clearly, eliminate overload and underload).
Get to the cause of the problem, but may be disruptive because of major changes in work processes or org. structure.
Generally preferred over other interventions.
Secondary Prevention Strategies: involve modifying responses to inevitable demands or stressors (stress management training). Cognitive-behavioral skills training: change the way you perceive stressful events (learning, rehearsal, application).
Tertiary Prevention strategies: focused on healing negative effects of stressors (employee assistance programs - EAPs - counseling by an org. deals with workplace stress/alcohol/drug/outside stressors.