1st psychosocial task (birth to 18 months)
“I trust people” (basic trust) must override “I do not trust people” (basic mistrust)
Necessary for development of child’s mind and socialization
Attachment relationship between infants and parents.
What are the innate capacities pre-programed in the infant?
Attend to facial stimuli, attend to human voices, physiologic requirements, attach to one emotionally pleasurable relationship and be assertive (explore and seek new stimuli).
How did Piaget say infants acquire intelligence?
Being assertive to interact with people and things
What are perceptions formed by the mind?
Early in life how does the mind determine what memories to keep and what memories to trash?
Keep the memories that have high emotional importance for physical survival and emotional attachment.
A desire to fit a new perception into an existing schema or long-term memory.
Restructuring or modifying an existing fact and/or forming a new fact or representation that adds to the child’s intelligence.
Things involved in the process of learning
Assimilation and accommodation
Style of infant behavior
Temperament. Easy = new situations met with expectant interest. Slow to adapt = new situations met with tentative approach. Difficut = new situations met with fear and fight/flight response
Freud’s 1st stage of psychosexual development
Oral stage: infants use mouths to learn about bodies and social world.
Direct role of father
Foster infant’s attachment to himself.
Root of stranger anxiety
Retrieving the memory of mother’s face and comparing it to the perception of a new face.
When do children experience a fight or flight mechanism (crying, gaze aversion, pushing away)?
When there is too low or too high of stimulation. You have to stay in the optimal stimulation range to evoke pleasurable emotions.
What leads an infant to think that his parents don’t care about him?
Not assuaging the child’s anxiety.
Erikson’s 2nd Psychosocial task of life
Trust people, be proud for being imaginative and curious.
Erikson’s 3rd Psychosocial task of life
Trust people, no it’s okay to explore and be mentally curious about everything. This overrides separation anxiety and fear of injury.
After age 3 kids gain an ability to find qualities and meaning in objects that they do not inherently possess
Ability to symbolize. This allows children to learn a language.
After age 3 kids gain an ability to form mental representations of current perceptions, thoughts, emotions and memories.
What is the function of fantasy formation?
To achieve vicarious gratification, to delay actions that may result in punishment
What comes first in childhood language development, comprehension or expression?
What happens to the child’s actions as they learn to verbalize?
Action dominance turns to verbal dominance and they express wishes and feelings as verbal fantasies that replace prohibited actions.
Steps in sexual identity development
Imitation and identification with linked-sex heterosexual parent -> Discovery of anatomic sexual difference between boys and girls + life involves injury and pain -> body damage, separation and stranger anxiety
Girl fantasizes to marry dad and replace mother. Boy fantasizes to marry mom and replace father. Child is being chased by animals during this phase.
What is the first resolution of the oedipal conflict?
Relinquishment of occupying same-sex parent’s role -> Re-identification with same-sex parent -> separation and body damage anxiety is diminished.
1st phase in development of superego or conscience
Toddler learns parents rules about what he can and cannot do -> Child obeys parents
2nd phase in development of superego or conscience
Parents’ rules and standards get internalized. Kids begin to feel guilt when fantasizing about disobeying.
Internal signal when child thinks of disobeying one’s conscience
Superego anxiety. This results in a new internal motivator to obey one’s conscience and its signal of anxiety to avoid guilt.
Major developmental tasks of late childhood (6-11 years old).
Establish a peer group and social identity.
Rules in which a child interacts, plays, negotiates conflict and aspects the child chooses to reveal to his friends.
What happens after a child has transitioned from action dominance to speech dominance?
They transition to though dominance (thinking before speaking or acting)
Latent state of childhood
Age 6-11 years old: sexual wishes are less blatant than they will be in adolescence.
Who framed the idea of a child learning to assimilate and accommodate
Preparations for formal education
Overcome basic mistrust, become autonomous, become curious & inquisitive, achieve self-esteem with peers and be ready to be industrious.
What characteristic is revealed when a child is assertive when it comes to show and tell?
Self-esteem development is going well and the child knows that his performances are admired by parents and other important people.
Two functions of the conscience around 8 and 9 years old
Self-control and self-discipline. The child knows how to behave because he has a conscience and feels get when he obeys his conscience.
What in childhood is very beneficial to future spouse relationship?
Childhood chum that you can confide in
How should one’s identity be developed once it’s time to graduate high school?
It should be emancipated from parents and significant others. You maintain self-esteem even if your points of views are similar or different from others. You appreciate continuity in your life between past, present and future. This allows you to stay out of trouble, pick good friends and stay focused on life goals.
What role do parents play in formation of an adolescent’s emancipated identity?
Consistent w/values and standards. Tolerate independence and not criticize dependency. Do not become overly competitive with peer group and support a good peer group, otherwise teenager will become rebellious
What happens to a teen’s relationship with their opposite-sex parent as they develop their sexual identity?
They develop physical and emotional closeness with that parent, but some avoidance of that parent occurs and they start arguing with that parent in defense of the Oedipal complex until it is suppressed.
Negative effects of masturbation
Replaces any sexual behaviors in front of peers and seriously derails developmental process
How can preoccupation with academics affect sexual identity development?
Prolongs adolescents and “sexual energy” is put into books
Two functions of the superego in the teenager
Self-control, self-discipline, maintain self-esteem