Flashcards in Psychology Module 19 Deck (27):
Freud's Psychodynamic Theory
1. The lasting behaviors, thoughts, and emotions that typify how we react and adapt to other people and situations make up our A. An organized attempt to explain how personalities develop and why they differ is called a B. Of personality.
A. Personalities B. Theory
2. Freud’s approach, which emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences and conflicts between conscious and unconscious forces, is called a A. Theory of personality. According to Freud, those wishes, desires, or thoughts of which we are aware or that we can readily recall are B.; Those that we automatically repress because of their disturbing or threatening content are C.
A. Psychodynamic B. Conscious thoughts C. Unconscious forces or thoughts
3. Freud’s technique of encouraging clients to talk about any thoughts or images that entered their heads is called A. His assumption that dreams provide clues to unconscious thought and desires gave rise to his technique of B. Mistakes that we make in everyday speech that are thought to reflect unconscious thoughts or wishes are called C.
A. Free association B. Dream interpretation C. Slips of the tongue or Freudian slips
Divisions of the Mind
4. According to Freud, the biological drives of sex and aggression are the source of all psychic or mental energy and give rise to the development of the A. Because this division of the mind strives to satisfy drives and avoid pain without concern for moral or social restrictions, it is said to be operating according to the B. During infancy, the second division of the mind develops from the id; it is called the C. The goal of this second division is to find safe and socially acceptable ways of satisfying the id’s desires. The ego follows a policy of satisfying a wish or desire only if a socially acceptable outlet is available; thus it is said to operate according to the D. During early childhood, the third division of the mind develops from the id; it is called the E. The goal of this division is to apply the moral values and standards of one's parents and society in satisfying one's wishes.
A. id B. Pleasure principle C. Ego D. Reality principle E. Super ego
5. When the id, ego, and superego are in conflict, an unpleasant state of uneasiness, apprehension, and heightened physiological arousal may occur; this is known as A. The Freudian process that operate at unconscious levels to help the ego reduce anxiety through self deception are called B.; they can be helpful or harmful, depending on how much we rely on them.
A. Anxiety B. Defense Mechanisms
6. The essence of Freud's theory of personality development is a series of five developmental stages, called A., during which the individual seeks pleasure from different parts of the body. The stage that lasts for the first 18 months of life is called the B. stage. It is followed by the C. stage, which lasts until about the age of 3. The next stage, until about the age of 6, is called the D. stage. The stage that lasts from 6 to puberty is called the E. stage; it is followed by the F. stage, which lasts thru adulthood.
A. Psychosexual Stages B.Oral C. Anal D. Phallic E. Latency F. Genital
7. The resolution of the potential conflict at each stage has important implications for personality. A Freudian process through which individuals may be locked into earlier psychosexual stages because their wishes were over gratified or under gratified is called A.; it can occur at any of the first three stages.
Freud's Followers & Critics
8. Jung believed that the basic force is not the sex drive, as Freud believed, but ancient memory traces and symbols shared by all people in all cultures, called the A. According the Alder's philosophy, each person is a social being with a unique personality and is motivated by B. Karen Horney disagreed with Freud's emphasis on biological urges and insisted that the major influence on personality development was C. between parents and child.
A. Collective Unconscious B. Social Urges C. Social Interactions
9. Those who generally agreed with Freud's basic ideas bit disagreed with his emphasis on biological forces, sexual drives, and psycho-sexual stages are referred to as A.; they turned the emphasis of psycho-dynamic theory to psychosocial and cultural influences.
10. Criticisms of Freud's psycho-dynamic theory include that it is so comprehensive that it is not very useful for explaining or predicting behaviors of a specific A. ; that some Freudian ideas (Oedipal Complex) are out of date because they could not be B.; that psycho-dynamic theory must be updated with findings about C. factors and the association between D. development and related behaviors.
A. Individual or Person B. Tested or Verified C. Genetic D. Brain
11. Humanistic theories emphasize our capacity for personal growth, development, of our potential, and freedom to choose our A. They stress that our perceptions of the world become our reality; this is called the B. perspective. These theories emphasize that one's personality is unique, functions as a unit, and is more than the sum of individual parts; together these ideas make up the C. view. These theories also highlight the idea of an inherent tendency to reach our true potentials, which is called D.
A. Destinies B. Phenomenological C. Holistic D. Self Actualization
12. According to Maslow, our needs are arranged in a hierarchy with A. at the bottom and B. toward the top.
A. Biological Needs B. Social and Personal Needs
13. How we see and describe ourselves, including how we perceive our abilities, personality characteristics, and behaviors, is referred to as our A. According to Carl Rogers, the development of self concept depend on our interactions with others. If we receive B. positive regard even when our behavior is disappointing, we will develop a positive self concept and tend to act, feel, and think optimistically and constructively.
A. Self or Self Concept B. Unconditional
Cultural Diversity: Unexpected High Achievement
14. Indo-Chinese children overcame problems of language and culture and excelled in American schools in part because of the A. held by their families, including mutual respect, cooperation, parental involvement, and the belief that they, not fate, controlled their destinies.
A. Primary Values
Research Focus: Shyness
15. As a practicing Psychoanalyst, Donald Kaplan traces the causes of shyness back to unresolved conflicts at one or more of Freud's A. The Freudian approach primarily uses therapist's B to answer questions about personality. In comparison, social cognitive theory breaks shyness down into three measurable or observable components that can be investigated using C.
A. Psychosexual Stages B. Personal Observations C. Experimental Studies
Application: Assessment-Projective Tests
16. Tests that are used to measure observable traits and behaviors as well as unobservable characteristics of a person and to identify personality problems and psychological disorders are called A. tests
17. Achievement tests measure what we have learned; aptitude tests measure our potential for learning or acquiring a specific skill; and intelligence tests measure our general potential to solve problems, think abstractly, and profit from experience. Collectively, these are called A. tests
18. For a test to be useful, it must have two characteristics. First, a test must measure what it is supposed to measure; this is called A. second, a person's score on a test at one point in time should be similar to the score obtained by the same person on a similar test at a later point in time; this is called B.
A. Validity B. Reliability